Flashcards in Blood Component Therapy Deck (65)
what are the 4 basic blood types and what are they named for?
A, B, AB & O
Named for the antigens present
coagulation is a _________ process
list the factor associated with the intrinsic pathway
8, 9, 11, 12
list the factor associated with the extrinsic pathway
3 & 7
what are the 5 tests for evaluating coagulation?
how is the platelet count defined?
actual number of platelets (thrombocytes) per cubic mL of blood
what is the normal range for platelet count in adults?
what are the platelet counts for thrombocytopenia and thrombocytosis?
what is activated clotting time (ACT)?
measures the amount of time required for whole blood to clot in a test tube
what is ACT used for and what are the normal values?
used to monitor heparin therapy
cardiopulmonary bypass: >400sec
what is PTT used for?
measures factors 8, 9, 11 & 12 (intrinsic) and adequate levels of common pathway factors (1, 2, 5, 10)
can be used to monitor heparin therapy
what is the normal range for PTT?
25-38 seconds or 30-40 seconds (varies with reagent)
what is PT used for?
measures factor 7 (extrinsic) and factors 10, 5, 2 and 1 (common)
what is the normal range for PT? and what will prolong it?
normal: 10-14 seconds
low levels of 7, 10, 5, prothrombin & fibrinogen will prolong PT
what is the only cause of a prolonged PT with a normal PTT?
factor 7 deficiency
why was INR developed?
to standardize PT values to better monitor oral anticoagulation therapy
therapeutic warfarin dosing occurs when INR = ?
what does it mean to type and screen blood and when would it be necessary?
type and screening blood means a pt's blood has been typed for A, B and Rh antigens and screened for common antibodies.
This is done when you are not planning on giving blood, but there is a potential for blood loss (only good for 72hrs)
what does it mean to type and cross match blood and when would it be necessary?
when a recipient's blood is incubated with donor blood product to test for a rxn.
this is a more specific test required when you are planning on giving blood
what kind of compatibility testing can be done on blood products in the case of an emergency?
have at least type specific blood product with partial cross match.
where are antibodies and antigens located?
antibodies are in the blood plasma and antigens are on the surface of erythrocytes
what type of PRBCs can be transfused to anyone?
type O (universal donor)
what is the universal donor of platelets, FFP and cryoprecipitate?
type AB because they contain neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies
what factors are considered in the decision to transfuse?
extensive blood loss
low hemoglobin concentration
what are the different types blood components that can be given to a patient?
PRBCs are indicated for treatment of what?
1 unit of PRBCs contains _______ ml volume with a HCT of ______
at what Hgb concentration is a PRBC transfusion indicated?
at what volume is a rapid volume replacement with RBC indicated?
>40 percent loss ( >2000 mL)