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Flashcards in blood perfusion Deck (53):
1

blood - cortical distribution - arteries and what the supply

1. anterior cerebral artery --> anteriomedial surface of the cortex
2. middle cerebral artery --> lateral surface of the cortex
3. posterior cerebral artery --> posterior and inferior surface

2

anterior cerebral artery supplies

anteriomedial surface of the cortex

3

middle cerebral artery supplies

lateral surface of the cortex

4

posterior cerebral artery supplies

posterior and inferior surface

5

watershed zones of the brain - areas

- between anterior cerebral/middle cerebral arteries
- between posterior cerebral/middle cerebral arteries

6

watershed zone are in danger to be damaged under / lesions

severe hypotension --> 1. upper leg/upper arm weakness 2. defects kn higher order visual processes

7

Basilar artery is formed by

anastomosis of right and left vertebral arteries

8

cerebellar arteries

1. superior cerebellar
2. anterior inferior cerebellar
3. posterior inferior cerebellar

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source of posterior inferior cerebellar arteries

branch of vertebral arteries

10

source of anterior inferior cerebellar arteries

branch at the formation of basilar artery (from right and left vertebral arteries anastomosis)

11

source of superior cerebellar arteries

branch just before the end of basilar artery

12

basilar artery branches

1. anterior inferior cerebellar (at the beginning)
2. pontine arteries
3. superior cerebellar
4. basilar artery becomes left and right posterior cerebral artery

13

circle of willis - definition

system of anastomoses between anterior and posterior blood supplies to brain

14

source of posterior cerebral artery

at the and of basilar artery (basilar artery becomes right and left posterior cerebral artery)

15

source of middle cerebral artery

internal carotid is divided to middle and anterior cerebral artery

16

source of anterior cerebral artery

internal carotid is divided to middle and anterior cerebral artery

17

area of circle of wills (anatomy)

near optic chiasm

18

communicating between cerebral arteries

1. anterior communicating --> between left and right cerebral artery
2. posterior communicating --> posterior cerebral with internal carotid (just before the division of middle and anterior cerebral artery)

19

source of anterior spinal artery

from both vertebral arteries (2 vertebral arteries --> 1 anterior spinal artery)

20

first branches of middle cerebral artery

1. anterior choroidal artery
2. Lenticulo-striate arteries

21

Brain perfusion relies on tight ...

auto-regulation

22

auto-regulation - Cerebral perfusion is primarily driven by

1. PCO2 (primarily)
2. PO2 (in severe hypoxia)

23

auto-regulation - hypoxemia increases cerebral perfusion pressure when

P02 is less than 50 mm Hg

24

autoregulation - relationship between PO2 and cerebral blood flow

P02 increases cerebral blood flow (until P02=50 mmHg)
PO2>50 --> plateau of cerebral blood flow

25

autoregulation - relationship between PCO2 and cerebral blood flow

cerebral perfusion pressure increases with PCO2 until PCO2=90 mmHg
at PCO2>90 --> plateau of cerebral blood flow

26

pathophysiology of fainting in panic attack

increased RR --> decreased PCO2 --> decreased cerebral blood flow --> fainting

27

therapeutic hyperventilation of acute cerebral edema (stroke, trauma)

hyperventilation --> decreased PCO2--> vasoconstriction --> decreased cerebral blood flow --> decreased intracranial pressure

28

CPP

cerebral perfusion pressure

29

CPP (cerebral perfusion pressure) = .. (and explanation)

CPP = MAP - ICP
cerebral perfusion relies on pressure gradient between mean arterial pressure and intracranial pressure

30

CCP (cerebral perfusion pressure)? if decreased MAP

decreased

31

CCP (cerebral perfusion pressure)? if increased ICP

decreased

32

if CCP=O --> ..

no cerebral perfusion --> brain death

33

circle of Willis - anterior vs posterior circulation (which arteries)

posterior: basilar artery - posterior cerebral arteries
anterior: anterior and middle cerebral arteries, internal carotid

34

dural venous sinuses? and area

large venous channels that run through the dura

35

dural venous sinuses - flows? (function)

drain blood from cerebral vein and receive CSF from
arachnoid granulation
they empty into internal jugular vein

36

Arachnoid granulations are

growths of arachnoid membrane into the dural sinuses through which CSF enters the venous system.

37

dural venous sinuses empty into

internal jugular vein

38

dural venous sinuses drain blood from

cerebral vein

39

dural venous sinuses - examples (types)

1. superior sagittal (οβελιάιος) sinus
2. inferior sagital sinus
3. straight sinus (ευθής)
4. occipital sinus
5. transverse sinus (εγκάρσιος)
6. sphenoparietal sinus
7. cavernous sinus
8. sigmoid sinus

40

watershed zones --> damage in severe hypotenesion --> (clinical manifestation)

1. upper leg/upper arm weakness
2. defects in higher-order visual processing

41

brain is supplied by (generally)

1. internal carotid arteries (anteriorly)
2. basilar artery (posteriorly)

42

main location of CSF return via arachnoid granulations

superior sagittal sinus

43

straight sinus is composed by

anastomosis of inferior sagital sinus AND great cerebral vein of Galen

44

anastomosis of inferior sagital sinus AND great cerebral vein of Galen -->

straight sinus

45

confluence of the sinuses (what terminals their and what starts from their)

1. straight sinus (finish)
2. superior sagittal sinus (finish)
3. occipital sinus (finish)
4. (2) transverse sinus (start)

46

confluence of the sinuses (what terminals their)

1. straight sinus
2. superior sagittal sinus
3. occipital sinus

47

confluence of the sinuses (what starts from their)

transverse sinus (start)

48

transverse sinus - fate

is becoming sigmoid sinus and then internal jugular vein

49

carvenous sinus - composed by / fate

it is composed by sphenparietal sinus superior and ophalmic vein
flows into transverse sinus

50

sphenoparietal sinus - direction

it connects supperior sagital sinus with carvenous sinus

51

Homonculus?

topographic representation of motor and sensory areas in the cerebral cortex

52

Homonculus - distorted appearance is due to

certain body regions being more richly innervated and thus having increased cortical representation

53

Sigmoid sinus is going into internal jugular vein

Jugular foramen