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Flashcards in common brain lesions Deck (31):
1

common brain lesion - amygdala (bilateral) - manifestations

Kluver - Bucy syndrome --> disinhibited behavior:
1. hyperphagia
2. hypersexuality
3. hyperpolarity

2

Kluver - Bucy syndrome - area of lesion and cause

- amygdala (bilateral)
- HSV-1

3

common brain lesion - frontal lobe - manifestations

1. Disinhibition
2. deficits in concentration, orientation and judgement
3. maybe re-emergence of primitive reflexes

4

common brain lesion - dominant parietal-temporal cortex

GERSTMANN SYNDROME
1. Agraphia 2. acalculia 3. finger agnosia
4. left - right disorientation

5

GERSTMANN SYNDROME is caused by

dominant parietal-temporal cortex lesion

6

acalculia

acquired impairment in which patients have difficulty performing simple mathematical tasks

7

agraphia

acquired neurological disorder causing a loss in the ability to communicate through writing

8

finger agnosia

inability to distinguish the fingers on the hand

9

common brain lesion - nondominant parietal-temporal cortex

Hemispatial neglect syndrome --> agnosia of the contralateral side of the world

10

Hemispatial neglect syndrome -->

agnosia of the contralateral side of the world

11

reticular activating system - area

midbrain

12

common brain lesions - reticular activating system - manifestations

reduced levels of arousal and wakefulness (eg. coma)

13

common brain lesions - frontal eye fields - manifestations

Eyes look torward lesion

14

common brain lesions - paramedian pontine reticular formation - manifestations

eyes look away from side of lesion

15

common brain lesions - hippocampus (bilateral) - manifestation

anterograde amnesia: inability to make new memories

16

common brain lesions - subthalamic lesion - manifestations

contralateral hemiballismus: sudden, wild flailing of 1 arm +/- ipsilateral leg

17

common brain lesions - basal ganglia - manifestations

tremor at rest
chorea
athetosis

18

common brain lesions - basal ganglia - disease?

1. Parkinson disease
2. Huntington disease

19

common brain lesions - cerebellar vermis - manifestations

truncal ataxia
dysarthria

20

common brain lesions - Mamillary bodies (bilateral) - manifestations

Wernicke - Korsakoff syndrome: 1. confusion 2. ataxia
3. ophthalmoplegia 4. memory loss 5. comfabulation
6. personality changes

21

Wernicke - Korsakoff syndrome - memory loss

anterograde and retrograde

22

retrograde memory loss

loss of memory-access to events that occurred, or information that was learned

23

Wernicke - Korsakoff syndrome is associated with

thiamine (B1) deficiency and excessive alcohol use

24

Mamillary bodies (bilateral) / Wernicke - Korsakoff syndrome can be precipitated by

giving glucose without B1 to a B1-deficient patient

25

common brain lesions - cerebellar hemisphere - manifestations

at the site of damage:
1. intention tremor 2. limb ataxia
3. loss of balance 4. fall toward side of lesion

26

Gesrtman syndrome - common brain lesions?

Dominant parietal-temporal cortex

27

disinhibition - common brain lesions?

1. bilateral amygdala (Kluver-Bucy syndrome)
2. Frontal lobe

28

common brain lesions - frontal eye field vs paramedian pontine reticular formation - according manifestations

frontal eye field --> eyes look toward lesion
paramedian pontine reticular formation --> eyes look away from the side of lesion

29

frontal eye fields - location

in the frontal cortex

30

frontal eye fields is responsible for

non-tracking, voluntary eye movements

31

Cerebral hemisphere degeneration is associated with

chronic alcohol use