Blood pressure pharmacology Flashcards Preview

Physioloogy and pharmacology > Blood pressure pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood pressure pharmacology Deck (10)
Loading flashcards...

What is a normal level for systolic and diastolic pressure

<140 , <85


What is essential hypertension

Not a 100% clear cause but a good idea of the risk factors to what's caused hypertension


What is secondary hypertension

Clear consequence of a clinical condition


What is a potential cause of essential hypertension

Mean arterial blood pressure changes over time - (CO x total peripheral resistance) CO tends to decrease, TPR goes up - damage to vessel walls


How does renal disease cause secondary hypertension

Nephron function is impaired - increase in total blood volume - causes more damage to the kidney - more kidney failure


What is renal artery stenosis

A reduction in the diameter of the renal artery - renin production dependent on stretch receptors in the renal artery so more renin produced - more angiotensin II - more water retention - high BP


What is a pheochomocytoma

tumour of the chromaffin cells in the adrenal gland - causes increased secretion of adrenaline into the blood supply increasing blood pressure


How is retinal damage caused by hypertension

Hypertensive retinopathy - Light reflected in different ways due to changes in arterial pressure - white spots can be seen due to haemorrhage


What non-pharmacological treatments are in place for hypertension

weight loss, exercise, diet, reduced salt, alcohol and caffeine intake


What pharmacological treatments are in place

Diuretics - thiazides - increase Na and Cl secretion
Sympatholytics - alpha blockers - clonidine reduces CNS sympathetic output - Prazosin - relaxes smooth muscle and reduced total peripheral resistance
Beta blockers - propranolol reduces heart rate and contractility
Calcium channel blockers
ACE inhibitors
AGII inhibitors