Blood pressure pharmacology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Blood pressure pharmacology Deck (10)
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1

What is a normal level for systolic and diastolic pressure

<140 , <85

2

What is essential hypertension

Not a 100% clear cause but a good idea of the risk factors to what's caused hypertension

3

What is secondary hypertension

Clear consequence of a clinical condition

4

What is a potential cause of essential hypertension

Mean arterial blood pressure changes over time - (CO x total peripheral resistance) CO tends to decrease, TPR goes up - damage to vessel walls

5

How does renal disease cause secondary hypertension

Nephron function is impaired - increase in total blood volume - causes more damage to the kidney - more kidney failure

6

What is renal artery stenosis

A reduction in the diameter of the renal artery - renin production dependent on stretch receptors in the renal artery so more renin produced - more angiotensin II - more water retention - high BP

7

What is a pheochomocytoma

tumour of the chromaffin cells in the adrenal gland - causes increased secretion of adrenaline into the blood supply increasing blood pressure

8

How is retinal damage caused by hypertension

Hypertensive retinopathy - Light reflected in different ways due to changes in arterial pressure - white spots can be seen due to haemorrhage

9

What non-pharmacological treatments are in place for hypertension

weight loss, exercise, diet, reduced salt, alcohol and caffeine intake

10

What pharmacological treatments are in place

Diuretics - thiazides - increase Na and Cl secretion
Sympatholytics - alpha blockers - clonidine reduces CNS sympathetic output - Prazosin - relaxes smooth muscle and reduced total peripheral resistance
Beta blockers - propranolol reduces heart rate and contractility
Calcium channel blockers
ACE inhibitors
AGII inhibitors