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Physioloogy and pharmacology > Analgesia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Analgesia Deck (20)
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1

What is pain

Unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage

2

How is pain sensed

Detected by primary sensory neurons - relays info to DRG - this benign info is relayed to the CNS

3

Whats the difference between pain and nociception

Nociception stops when stimulus is delivered to the CNS whereas pain causes an emotional response

4

How do nociceptors convey info from the periphery to the spinal cord

Transduction - physical change of stimuli from its original modality to an action potential (Na influx)
Conduction - initiated by Nav channels
Transmission - Neurotransmitter release from the neurons to second order ones (increased Cai)

5

What are the role of NSAIDs in analgesia

Aspirin, ibuprofen - inhibit COX enzymes that would normally produce prostaglandin E

6

What are the risks of NSAIDs

CV risk - increase risk of CV thrombotic events/stroke - no vasodilation
Gastrointestinal risk - Prostaglandins required in immune response in GI tract - Increase risk of bleeding, ulceration - especially seen in the elderly

7

What effects do opiates have on the body

Depression of respiration
Inhibition of peristalsis in the GI tract
Sedation - cognitive impairment

8

What is an example of a natural opioid

Morphine

9

What is an example of a semi-synthetic opioid

Heroin

10

What is an example of a fully synthetic opioid

Fentanyl

11

What is an example of an endogenous opioid peptide

Endorphins

12

What physiological response does morphine cause

Binds to opioid receptors (GPCRs) that lead to the inhibition of Ca channels and their influx - therefore neurotransmission is inhibited

13

What are the three types of opioid receptor

u - concentrated in the dorsal horn area and receive input from DRG neurons
k and delta

14

Where are endogenous opioids found

CNS, areas associated with brain processing
Released during stress and prolonged physical exercise

15

How are endogenous opioids metabolised

Quickly degraded by extracellular proteases hence why you only get short pain relief

16

What is the shortest length endogenous opioid

Met-enkephalin and binds to all receptors

17

What is the intermediate lengthed endogenous opioid

Dynorphin - k-opioid receptor selective

18

What is the longest length endogenous opioid

Endorphin - u-opioid receptor selective

19

Which v channel is being targeted in new approaches to analgesia and why

Nav1.7 - mutations in these channels lead to a decrease or increase in pain
Target because they conduct APs in neurons

20

How does BOTOX relieve pain in migraine sufferers

Blocks neurotransmission by cleaving SNAP25 protein which is involved in exocytosis - also prevents muscular contraction - hence its other uses