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Flashcards in Heart blocks Deck (13)
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1

What is a first degree heart block

A slowing of conduction through the AV node/to the AVN from the SAN

2

How does a first degree heart block identify itself on an ECG

Appears as an unusually long PR interval.

3

What is another name for a Mobitz type I block

Wenckebach block - The PR interval gradually increases in length until the AV node fails to fire so there is no ventricular contraction - usually every third of fourth beat

4

What is a Mobitz type II block

The PR interval is normal - however every nth ventricular depolarization is missing - P wave returns at the expected time after missing the ventricular contraction

5

What occurs in a third degree heart block

No impulses are conducted through a given area in either direction

6

How is the cardiac cycle effected by a complete heart block

SAN and AVN now beat under the control of their own pacemakers - No consistent PR interval
AVN natural pacemakers are the Purkinje fibre cells - notoriously slow and unreliable so cardiac output falls, as well as blood pressure

7

How does complete heart block show on an ECG

Regularly spaced P intervals - but irregular spacing of QRS and T waves which have a low frequency and no relationship to the P wave

8

What is the cannon wave

3rd degree block - Atrial contraction against a closed tricuspid valve generates a pressure wave in the jugular vein

9

What is a bundle branch block

Disease often in the His-Purkinje fibre system - when heart rate exceeds a critical level these fibrous cells are unable to keep up - causing depolarization to travel slowly from one myocyte to the next in ventricular depolarization - prolonging of the QRS complex

10

How does circus movement develop

Due to a unidirectional conduction block in a myocardial cell - impulses being conducted down fibres split at a fork in the road - if one fork has a unidirectional block the excitation travels no further. On the other fork however - once the impulse reaches the ventricular muscle it travels back up the blocked fork and travels retrogradely through the region of the unidirectional block - Enough time has gone by for the refractory period of the initial excitatory cells to pass - so they can fire APs once again

11

How does circus movement cause arrhythmias

Frequency of re-entry will outpace the SAN pacemaker - so is responsible for a range of atria and ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

12

What is the cause of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

Bundles of Kent - transmitting fibres from the SAN straight to the ventricle bypassing the AVN block

13

How is WPWS seen on an ECG

Normal P interval - short PR interval - Prolonged QRS interval - early excitation of the ventricles presents itself as a delta wave at the beginning of the QRS complex
Also establishes a transient refractory block causing re-entry - tachycardia