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Clinical Biomed yr2 > Blood transfusion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood transfusion Deck (42):
1

what are the BSQR

blood safety and quality regulations
set standards of quality and safety for the collection, testing, processing, storage and distrubution of human blood

2

what standards are set of blood donation processing

GMP, GDP and GLP

3

SAE

serious blood adverse event
associated with the processing and lab

4

SAR

serious adverse reaction with blood donations and patients
associated with collection or transfusion or blood components

5

how is the saftey of the donor ensured?

Weight < 50Kg
Under 17/over 65 (59 for new donor)
Hb estimation, 120 or 135 g/L
Minimum donation interval (16 weeks)
Pregnancy (and until infant 12 months old)
Cardiovascular disease
Surgery/medical investigations/waiting list

6

what is removed from blood to remove risks

white cells removed
takes away risk of prions which can cause CJD

7

when is a red cell transfusion used?

increase a patients oxygen delivery capciy of their blood
anaemia

8

when is a platelet transfusion used?

prevention and tretment of haemmorrhage in patients with thromobcytopenia or platelet function defects

9

when is fresh frozen plasma used?

replacement of coagulation factors in a few specific situations such as the treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenia

10

namie two human plasma derrivatives

IgG and albumin

11

whats the use if human IgG as a plasma derrivative

it is pooled from donors
and used for antibodie deficiency syndromes and the treatment of immunological disorders

12

whats the use of albumin as a plasma derrivative

used to maintain blood volume
acts as a colloid
used in liver disease or severe burns where fluid leaks out of circulation nd this prevents that leakage

13

what are blood groups

series of red cell antigens deterined by a single gene locus

14

name some of the common blood groups

ABO
Rh
Kell
MNS
FY/duffy
JK

15

what is KELL

a RBC enzyme

16

where is the ABO grouping locus

chromosome 9
AB antigens are indirect gene products are the direct products are actually a transferase enyme

17

acquired B antigen

disease condition where it leads to changig of antigens on blood cells
deacetylation of A antigen means it changes to galactose leading to it appearing as B now inctread of A

18

where does acquired B antigen appear?

rectal and bowel carcinomas
perforation/ulceration
infections

19

Oh phenotype

rare
no H gene only hh
appear to be group O but actually arent and naturaly have anti-H making them incompatible with all ABO groups except Oh

20

what is theRh blood grouping system

has many haplotypes
he Rh blood group system is a complex set of red blood cell surface proteins that most likely function to maintain the integrity of the cell membrane

21

Rh haplotypes

D, C, c, E, and e account for the vast majority of clinical and laboratory issues in this blood group
D is the MAIN Ag

22

what defines a person as Rh pos or neg?

presence or absence of D Agw

23

who developed the Rh grouping system?

Alexander Weiner

24

Rh null

rare indivuals failing to make RhD and RhCE proteins
indduvals are autosomal and they RBCs and absornal (Rh needed strucurally) and they have chronic mild haemolytic anaemia

25

Kell protein

single glycoprotein enzy,e in RBCs

26

X-linked Mcleod syndrome

lack of Kantigens
patients have skeletal muscle wasting and neurological issues

27

Fy system

alleles: FyA and FyB
codominant antigens
used to be called duffy
acts as receptor

28

why is Fy more common in blacks

gives some protection against malaria

29

Fy (A-B0) phenotypes

occus in populations where malaria is endemic
an alternative gene at the FY locus

30

Jk system

also called Kidd
urea transporter also found on kidney
middmatch can lead to hemoloytic anaemia and disease of the newborn

31

MNS system

complicated glyciphorins

32

red cell antibodies

naturally occuring made following transufion or pregnancy
are made to the red antigens that the patient lacks
can be IgM or IgG

33

what red cell antibodies will someone with group AB have

none

34

wht red cell Ag will someone with group O have

both

35

what red cell Ag will someone group A have

antiB

36

intravascular haemolytic transufion reactions


due to ABO midd match
IgM Ab activated
actiavtes the complement cascade and MACs formned causing lysis of the cells

37

what happens after an intravascular haemoluytic reaction

Hb releaased into circulation
proinflamatory effects, chemokines
patient experiences fever, chills, pain, haemoglobunuria
shock and might go unconscious
can be fatal and renal failure

38

extracvascular haemotypic transfusion reaction

IgG made to Jf or Kidd etc
IgG binds to RBC, macrophage bind, cell phagocytosed and taken out of circulatio

39

clinical signs of extravascular reaction

delayed, 5-10 days
people have gone home by now so not so bad
- fever, chills
- haemoglobinuria
- jaundice

40

haemolyic disease of the newbornw

infants RBC destroyed by mothers antibodies

41

clnical effects of HDN

anaemia
hydrops foetalis
hyperbilirubinaemia
neurological defects
hepatosplenomegaly

42

how is HDN prevented

high risk foetuses are identified via a ABO Rh screening
antibody injections of anti D