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Flashcards in leukaemia Deck (42):
1

types of leukaemiae

cancer of WBC
- AML
ALL
CML
CLL

2

lymphomas

hodgkins
non-hodkinds

3

what causs the caner

mutations in both oncogenes and tumour supressor genes
- cells contrinualy divide and cant stop and wont die

4

what is leukaemia

cancer of WBC
uncontrolled growth in bone marrow of WBC
causes raised whte cel count in circulation and bone marrow failure as its too crowded

5

causes of leukaemia

most unknown
- chemotherapy
radiation exposure
benzene or formaldehyde exposure
genetics such as down syndromes

6

name the 4 types of leukaemias

AML: acute myeoid
ALL: acute lymphoblasti
CML: chronic myeloid
CLL: chronic lymphoid

7

blast cells

immature WBS that dont usually appear in peripheral lood, they are large with big nuclei

8

basic outline of AML

Uncontrolled proliferation of myeloid stem cell resulting in large numbers of immature white blood cells, particularly granulocytes and monocytes

9

what age does AML affect

all ages
increased risk with age
median is 60yrs

10

signs an symptoms of AML

Acute, often critically ill
Malaise, fever, sweats.
Symptoms of anaemia
Neutropenia - Infections
Thrombocytopenia - Bleeding / DIC

11

blood test results for AML

on blood film blast celsl seen
thrombocytopenia
anaemia: normocytic and chromic
WBCs and MPO pos

12

MPO

myeloperoidadse
chemical in granules of granulocytes
pos for this signals myeloid origin of cancer

13

prognosis of AML

chemo can lead to full remission in younger patients
older patients have a less good prognosis

14

define remission

when the leukaemia isnt active

15

what is the definition of remission for AMl

<5% blast cells in bone marrow

16

define ALL

uncontrolled proliferation of lymphoid stem cells resulting in large numbers of abnormal lymphbolasts in bone marrow

17

who does ALL affect

childre

18

signs and symptoms of ALL

Bone and joint pain
- overcrowding of marrow casues pain
Symptoms of bone marrow failure (anaemia, infection, haemorrhage)
Generalised lymphadenopathy (enlarged lymph nodes)
Hepatosplenomegaly
- extramedullar haemotopiesis occus
Testicular involvement
CNS manifestations

19

blood test results for ALL

over 20% of WBC on blood film are blasts
neutropenia
thrombocytopenia
MPO NEG

20

prognosis of ALL

majoity of children curable with chemo and DNA prophylaxis

21

outline of CML

Uncontrolled proliferation of myeloid stem cell resulting in large numbers of circulating leukocytes, particularly neutrophils

22

peak onset of CML

40-60 yr
more males

23

what is CML associated with

presence of philadelphia chromone
oncogene is translocated from chr9 to fuse with BCR gene on chr22
fusion gene encodes protein with high tyrosine kinase activity

24

signs and symptoms of CML

datigue
splenomegaly
gout
bruising
leukostaisis, clumping of leukocytes

25

blood test results of CML

high WBC count
neutrocytosis
incrase in all myeloid cells in peripheral blood, neurtophils high and basophils
anaemia
thrombocytosis sometimes
FISH used for gene mutation

26

prognosis of CML

indolent chonic phase followed by acceleration and final fatal phase
stem cell transplant is only known cute but mortaility significant

27

outline CLL

uncontrolled clonal prolliferaton of B lymphocytes

28

who does CLL affect

elderlymore males
common in western world

29

signs and symptoms of CLL

asymptomatic often
eldery typically die of something else firtst
symetrical and painless enlargement of lymph nodes
anaemia
immunosupressant lots of infections
indolent

30

blood test results for CLL

high lymphocyte count
WBC show as small round lymphoyctes
smear cells, they are fagile
lyphoycte always B cells
anaemia
thromboytopenia

31

what is lymphoma

cancer of lymphoid tissue
- spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, adenoids, thymus

32

what is hodgkins lymphoma

malignant B cells accumlating in lymph bodes

33

signs of hodgkins

lymphaddrenophy, swelling
splenomegaly
fever, itching, fatigue, sweats

34

blood test results for hodgkins

normocytic chomic anaemia
eosinophillia neutrophillia
high platles

35

prognosis of hodgkins

90% cure rate

36

non-hodgkins lymphoma

large group of lymphoid tumors B cell most common but can be either
variable presentation

37

clinical presentation of non-hodgkins

asymetrica lymphadrenopathy
sore throat
aeniaemia
acute abdominal pain, involvement of IG tract and liver and spleen

38

blood test results for non-hodgkins

normo anaemia
neutropenia thrombocytopenia

39

what is multiple myeloma

cancer of cloncal plasma cells in bone marrow
B cells
b secreting B cells secrete homegenous Ig called paraprotein which is detedable i serum and or urie

40

clinical signs of multiple myeloma

- bone pain
- anaemia
- renal failure

41

blood test results of multiple myeloma

increased plasma cells in bone marrow
parapotein in serum and urne
pancytopenia
anaeia

42

prognosis of multiple myeloma

cure is elusive
chemotherapy and stem cell transplant
good palliatve care