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Flashcards in Blood vessels exam Deck (158):
1

arteries are

efferent and divergent

2

Veins are

afferent and convergent

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capillaries are

exchange vessels

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Tunica intima

inner most layer of vessels made of endothelium and elastic lamina

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tunica media

middle layer of vessels made of smooth muscle

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tunica externa

outer layer of vessels made of connective tissue

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Do capillaries have all three layers

no they only have tunica intima

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difference between arteries and veins

arteries have thicker walls, more resilient, high pressure, more smooth muscle, and smaller lumen while veins have larger diameter with a larger lumen, have valses, and depend on skeletal muscle to move blood, low pressure

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elastic arteries

conducting, largest arteries and closest to the heart, highest pressure, expand and recoil in response to pressure.

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Muscular arteries

distributing, medium size, thick muscle layer, distribute blood to specific organs.

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elastic rebound

recoil of arteries at beginning of ventricular diastole

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aneurysm

Swelling in the arterial wall due to localized weakness. Can burst causing hemorrhage.

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atherosclerosis

plaques form as monocytes engulf cholesterol and become foam cells, they stick to endothelial cells and damage it, tissue overgrows, and platelets stick to the damaged wall.

14

capillary beds

cluster where capillaries are generally found

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tissue perfusion

blood supply to a tissue through a capillary bed

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precapilary sphincters

controls the amount of blood flowing into the capillaries. Each capillary-metarteriole junction contains one

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metarterioles

small ateriole that feeds each capillary bed

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thoroughfare channels

where metarterioles drain into.

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Continuous capillaries

tight junctions that permit the diffusion of water, gases, small and lipid soluble molecules (skin and muscle tissue),

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fenestrated capillaries

pores that permit the diffusion of larger molecules (kidneys, endocrine glands, small intestine)

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sinusoids

discontinuous endothelium with large pores that permit very large molecules and blood cells (liver, bone marrow, spleen)

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what do the valves of veins do?

extensions of the tunica intima that overlap and prevent backflow

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where is most of the blood in the body at?

in the veins called venous reserve

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what does the muscles and respiration do for blood movement?

both help propel blood along veins by squeezing the veins when muscles and lungs are contracted/larger in size

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portal system

blood flows through two consecutive capillary networks before returning to the heart

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arteriovenous anastomosis

allows an artery to empty directly into a vein without passing through a capillary bed (provide an alternative pathway for blood),

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arterial anastomosis

pathway between two arteries. Exist in many organs like the heart and brain

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venous anastomosis

pathway between two veins

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Hepatic portal circulation

the hepatic portal vein brings blood to liver and hepatic veins drain blood from liver.

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Blood supply to the brain

the brain is the #1 priority and receives blood from the internal carotid and vertebral arteries.

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Fetal circulation

lungs are collapsed and that blood bypasses the lungs via the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus

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role of the umbilical artery

to return blood to the placenta from the fetus

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role of the umbilical vein

to bring blood to the fetus from the placenta

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angiogenesis

the development of new blood vessels

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factors that cause angiogenesis

embryonic development, growth, wound healing, endurance training, obesity, tumors

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Hemodynamics

physiology of blood flow in the cardiovascular system. Heart generates a pressure gradient to overcome the peripheral resistance of blood vessels and generate flow

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blood flow

the amount of blood flowing through an organ, tissue, or vessel in a given time

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perfusion

the flow per given volume or mass of tissue in a given time.

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blood pressure

outward force exerted by blood on the walls of blood vessels

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how is blood pressure calculated

BP (mm Hg) = CO x PR

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main factors that influence blood pressure

CO, PR and Volume

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Systolic P

peak blood pressure measured during ventricular systole

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Diastolic P

minimum blood pressure at the end of ventricular diastole.

44

pressure is lower in pulmonary or systemic circulation?

pulmonary circulation

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pulse

rhythmic pressure oscillation that accompanies each heartbeat

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Hypertension

high blood pressure (140/90)

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hypotension

low blood pressure (90/50)

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how do you calculate pulse pressure

Pulse pressure = systolic – diastolic

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How do you measure mean arterial pressure?

MAP (Mean arterial pressure) = diastolic + pulse P/3

50

what does pressure do as you move from arteries to veins?

decreases

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Cardiovascular regulation

body regulates blood pressure to ensure constant blood flow to organs and tissues

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Autoregulation

Local regulations in specific tissue. Tissues regulates itself.

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Local myogenic

dilation/constriction of muscles. Can prevent fluctuations in blood flow by making changes in vessel diameter which causes local changes in resistance and flow

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metabolic mechanisms

maintained by chemicals that are locally released.

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Vasodilators

In active tissue: low oxygen, high CO2 and low pH and NO, histamine, prostacyclin. Dilating vessels brings more white blood cells

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Vasoconstrictors

endothelins and thromboxane

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Neural regulation

Regulates through sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. (faster). Can control constriction of vessels and cardiac output.

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Effects of sympathetic NS

speeds up heart, increase cardiac output, causes vasocontraction, increase PR, increase BP

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Effects of parasympathetic NS

slows down heart, decrease cardiac output, no effect on vessels but indirectly vasodilation, BP will go down

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Chemoreceptors

detect oxygen levels

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Endocrine regulation

regulation of homeostasis through the release of hormones (slower). Can affect the amount of blood.

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epinephrine/norepinephrine

cause CO to increase and bring blood pressure up, cause vasoconstrict

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ADH

saves water, blood volume goes up, and BP goes up

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aldosterone

saves sodium, which saves water, and blood volume goes up. Blood pressure goes up

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Capillary exchange

two-way movement of fluid across capillary walls

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Diffusion

the movement of molecules and ions down their concentration gradient. Will diffuse from blood to tissue where concentration is less.

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how does the size of molecules affects diffusion across continuous capillaries

proteins cannot diffuse through. rate of diffusion depends of size of gradient and molecule. Continuous capillaries only allow small molecules.

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Filtration

movement of fluid out of capillaries by the hydrostatic pressure

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how does filtration work

pressure drives water and solutes out of vessel/capillaries. CHP drives filtration. Pushes water out.

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reabsorption

movement of water from tissue back into the capillary. COP drives reabsorption. Colloid Osmotic pressure (COP) pulls water into capillary.

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net filtration pressure calculation

NFP = CHP–COP

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Overall is there more filtration or reabsorption

filtration

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NFP positive numbers vs negative numbers

positive= filtration, negative=reabsorption

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effects of edema

causes increased CHP and decreased COP, so more filtration

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effects of dehydration

decrease CHP increase COP, so less filtration

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effects of hemorrhage

results in decreased CHP so less filtration

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cardiogenic shock

inadequate pumping of the heart

78

anaphylactic shock

severe immune reaction to antigen, histamine release, generalized vasodilation, and increased capillary permeability

79

septic shock

bacterial toxins trigger vasodilation and increased capillary permeability

80

functions of the lymphatic system

immunity, regulation of interstitial fluid, absorption of dietary fats

81

where does WBC production take place?

WBC production in bone marrow and thymus

82

leukopenia vs leukocytosis

leukopenia = reduced number of WBC caused by HIV or chemotherapy. leukocytosis = increased number of WBC caused by infection or leukemia

83

general characteristics of WBCs

 Generally, don’t perform their functions within the blood
 can migrate out of the blood vessels and move via amoeboid movement
 are attracted to specific chemical stimuli
 many are capable of phagocytosis

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granular WBCs

neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

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agranular WBCc

monocytes and lymphocytes

86

neutrophil structure

most abundant, multilobed nucleus, attracted by dying tissue or bacterial secretion

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neutrophil function

attack and kill pathogens like bacteria by releasing granule content or by phagocytosis, contribute to local inflammation, attract other immune cells

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PUS

dead neutrophils and other debris

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what does high numbers of neutrophils mean

indicator of inflammation

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eosinophils structure

large red granules contain cytotoxic, bilobed nucleus

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eosinophils function

effective against large parasites through exocytosis of toxic compounds on the parasite

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basophil structure

very rare, large dark granules, contain histamine and heparin

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basophil function

activated by IgE antibodies, role in allergic reactions

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monocytes/macrophages structure

largest leukocytes, no granules, u shaped nucleus, when they exit the blood they are called macrophages

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monocytes/macrophages function

aggressive and long-lived phagocytes, engulf and destroy pathogens, attract other immune cells activate other components of immune system by displaying phagocytosed antigens

96

difference between free and fixed macrophages

free = circulating, fixed = resident tissue macrophages

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Lymphocyte morphology

small cells with large spherical nucleus and a light blue rim of cytoplasm

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lymphocyte production

production of b cells in bone marrow and t-cells in thymus

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lymph compared to plasma

has low protein content compared to plasma

100

difference between systemic circulation capillaries and lymphatic capillaries

lymphatic capillaries have larger diameter, are blind ended for a one-way system, and are leakier

101

what do larger lymphatic vessels have?

valves

102

lymphedema

blockage of lymphatic drainage from a limb

103

Natural killer cells

large lymphocytes that do immunological surveillance

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lymphatic cells

natural killer, T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, reticular cells, and macrophages

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dendritic cells

mobile cells found in the epidermis and mucous membranes that present pathogens to immune system cells

106

reticular cells

type of fibroblasts that produce reticular fibers and provide structural support for lymphatic organs

107

lymphoid tissue

reticular tissues dominated by lymphocytes

108

MALT

loosely organized clusters of lymphoid tissue, which includes tonsils, payer's patches, and appendix

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payers patches

located in last portion of small intestine

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lymph node structure

small, bean-shaped clusters of lymphatic tissue surrounded by capsule of connective tissue located along lymphatic vessels

111

lymph node function

to filter lymph and detect antigens and initiate an immune response

112

three types of tonsils

pharyngeal tonsil, palatine tonsils, and lingual tonsil

113

red pulp in the spleen

contains macrophages which destroy old RBCs

114

white pulp in spleen

filters pathogens from blood and contains leukocytes and dendritic cells

115

function of spleen

filters blood

116

thymus does what with age and is important for?

its size changes with age and importance for T cell production and maturation

117

immunes system

the proteins, calls, and tissues responsible for defending the body against both environmental hazards and internal threats

118

pathogen

molecules that cause disease

119

three lines of defense

o First line: cutaneous and mucous membranes that act as a barrier to block entry of pathogens
o Second line: responses of cells and proteins that make up innate immunity
o Third line: includes responses of cells and proteins of adaptive immunity

120

innate immune response

first line of defense. We are born with it. quick and non-specific, respond to any pathogens, barriers always there even if no stimulus

121

adaptive immune response

longer and highly specific, will recognize one specific pathogen, and remembers what it has encountered from before. carried out by humoral (b-cell mediated) and cell mediated (t-cells)

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surface barriers of innate immunity

hair, skin, and mucous membranes, sebum, sweat, saliva, stomach acid

123

immunological responses

fever, compliment system, cytokines

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phagocytes

engulf pathogens; macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils

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inflammation

local tissue response to injury

126

stages to inflammation

injury, inflammatory mediators released, inflammatory mediators trigger: vasodilation, increased capillary permeability, pain, recruitment of other immune cells

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signs of inflammation

redness, swelling, heat, pain

128

properties of innate immunity

surface barrier, immunological surveillance, physiological responses, phagocytes, inflammation

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properties of adaptive immunity

specificity, versatility, memory, and self-tolerance

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specificity

each T or B cell responds only to one specific antigen and ignores the others

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versatility

the body can recognize many types of antigens

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memory of adaptive immunity

memory cells stay in circulation and when re-exposed to the same pathogen the body reacts quicker

133

self tolerance

ignores self-antigens

134

antigen presentation

“docking sites” for specific components of antigens that are then displayed

135

MHC class 1

found on all nucleated cells. Recognized by cytotoxic t cells. Present antigens found inside the cell

136

MHC class 2

found on specific immune cells. Recognized by helper t cells. Present antigens taken in by phagocytosis

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cell mediated response

responds primarily to cells infected with intracellular pathogens (virus, cancer, transplanted organs…)

138

steps to cytotoxic T cell response

• activation: T cell recognizes an antigen presented on MHC class 1.
• Cell division to make copies of activated t cell
• find and destroy abnormal cells presenting the antigen
• some t cells stay in circulation and become memory cells

139

steps to helper T cell response

• activation: recognize an antigen presented by MCH class 2
• cell division and make copies
• helper t cells release cytokines (chemicals) to activate immune response
• Some become memory cells

140

steps to antibody-mediated B cell response

• Activation: b cell receptor recognizes an antigen. B cell presents the antigen to helper t cell. Helper t cell releases chemicals to activate b cell.
• Cell division to make copies
• B cell becomes a plasma cell and releases antibodies
• Some b cells become memory cells

141

location and function of v region of antibodies

where the antibody binds to antigen

142

classes of antibodies

 IgG: most abundant and can cross the placenta
 IgE: involved in allergic reactions
 IgD: on the surface. The b cell receptors
 IgM: first to be produced by plasma cell
 IgA: work together in innate immunity

143

how do antibodies work?

neutralization, agglutination, complement fixation, and opsonization

144

neutralization

prevent pathogens and toxins from interacting with out cells

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agglutination

antibodies stick to each other

146

complement fixation

destroy antigen

147

opsonization

coat pathogen and enhance phagocytosis

148

primary immune response

first time you are infected with certain pathogen

149

secondary immune response

re-exposure to pathogen

150

active natural vs active artificial

N = through exposure via infection, A = through vaccination

151

active immunity

own immune system makes antibodies

152

passive immunity

receive antibodies from someone else

153

passive natural vs passive artificial

N = mother’s milk, A = : inject antibodies to toxins or venoms (being bit by a snake, rabies…)

154

principles of graft rejection

cytotoxic t cells and NK cells attack foreign cells and cause necrosis

155

immunodeficiency disorder

immune system incompetent (not working). ex: HIV/AIDS

156

autoimmune disorder

immune system treats self-antigens as foreign and attack own tissue

157

hypersensitivity reaction

cause the immune system to overreact which can damage tissues

158

Immediate hypersensitivity

allergy, anaphylaxis: if antigen gets in blood causes vasodilation