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Flashcards in Respiratory system Deck (111):
1

7 functions of respiratory system

o Ventilation- moves air
o Gas exchange
o Pressure changes in thoracic cavity helps with venous return and helps expel contents from abdominopelvic cavity
o Olfaction
o Speech and sound
o Regulates blood volume by pushing on the veins and moving blood through
o Regulates blood ph by eliminating CO2

2

upper respiratory system

nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx. Filters warms and humidifies incoming air

3

lower respiratory system

trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli of lungs, more delicate surfaces. Has more smooth muscle so can constrict.

4

conducting zone

from entrance of the nasal cavity through the airways to the terminal bronchioles. moves air to the lungs and allows air to reach exchange surfaces. Controls air flow, traps pollutants

5

respiratory zone

respiratory bronchioles, alveolar, alveoli, exchanges between air and blood takes place

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Mucosa

lines the conducting portion of respiratory tract = lamina propria + epithelial cells

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what are mucous glands for and where are they found

for defense and mostly in the upper conducting portion

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what is smooth muscle for and where are they?

smooth muscle for regulatory control mostly in the lower conducting portion.

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what is mucous made by and for what purpose

mucus is made by goblet cells and mucous glands and traps pollutants and pathogens.

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cilia function

to move mucous towards the pharynx where it is swallowed

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consequence if cilia destroyed

caused by smoking and they cough more to expel mucous

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cilia location

lining the trachea

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nasal conchae function

splits air into separate streams

14

function of hairs

trap large particles

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vascularization of respiratory system

regulates temperature, mucus traps particles and humidifies incoming air

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olfactory receptors

smell

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3 types of pharynx

nasopharynx (back of nose), oropharynx (back of mouth), and laryngopharynx (lower end of the pharynx)

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larynx

voice box- the hollow muscular organ forming an air passage to the lungs and holding the vocal cords

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glottis

narrow opening at superior end of larynx

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pharynx

throat- shared by both resp. and digestive system

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epiglottis

lid, which covers glottis when swallowing so food does not go into lungs

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phonation

sound from voice

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what determines pitch of voice

pitch based on diameter and how stretch. more stretched=higher pitch, thicker strings=deeper voice

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what determines volume of voice

how much air

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Articulation

production of speech

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what is important for articulation

amplification and lip and tongue movement

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trachea

windpipe. cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs. shaped like the letter C. an opening to the back

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trachealis muscles

can expand the esophagus to accommodate big amounts of food

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bronchitis

results in inflamed, constricted bronchi

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bronchioles

smallest airway

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bronchioles structure

no cartilage, no mucous, few cilia, lined with smooth muscle

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how sympathetic and parasympathetic effect the bronchioles

sympathetic: bronchodilation and parasympathetic: bronchoconstriction

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Lungs structure

3 lobes in right, 2 lobes in left right is a little larger, left needs to accommodate for heart

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pleurae of lungs

visceral: on lung and parietal: on wall of thoracic cavity

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Type I cells

simple squamous epithelium which makes 90% of the wall of alveolus

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type 2 cells

cells which produce surfactant

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surfactant

a fatty mixture, which coats the lumen of the alveoli, reduces surface tension and keeps alveoli open

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alveolar macrophages

mobile phagocytes which engulf small particles trapped in bronchioles or alveolar surfaces

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3 parts of respiratory membrane

o Squamous epithelial of alveolus – type 1 cells
o Endothelial cells of capillary -
o Basal lamina: in between squamous epithelial and endothelial cells

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What happens in pneumonia and why it impairs gas diffusion

inflammation of the lobules of lungs which makes it harder for diffusion of gases and to oxygenate lungs/blood

41

Pulmonary circulation

portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.

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pressure of pulmonary circulation

has low pressure because of the extensive capillary beds in the lungs and less pressure generated by RV

43

brachial tree

the branching system of bronchi and bronchioles conducting air from the windpipe into the lungs.

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primary bronchi

branch off of trachea to lungs

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secondary bronchi

one to each lobe, three on right and two on left

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tertiary bronchi

less cartilage, more smooth muscle as bronchi branch and get smaller

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terminal bronchioles

last generation of conducting zone airways

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Respiratory bronchioles

identified by the presence of some alveoli along their walls

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pulmonary ventilation

movement of air in and out of lungs

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gas exchange

pulmonary and tissue gas exchange. Movement of gases between lungs and blood

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gas transport

movement of gases through blood

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Atmospheric pressure

pressure by the weight of the atmosphere, at sea level atmospheric pressure = 760 mm Hg. As you go to higher altitudes AP goes down and there is less pressure

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intrapulmonary pressure

pressure inside lungs (inside aveoli)

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intrapleural pressure

pressure between pleurae (outside of the lungs). Relative vacuum (always lower than atmospheric pressure and intrapulmonary pressure)

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Boyle’s law

P = 1/V. As volume increases pressure decreases. As volume decreases pressure increases

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standard atmospheric pressure

760 mm Hg

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Factors that influence resistance to airflow:

airway resistance, surface tension, and compliance

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airway resistance

anything that impedes air flow through respiratory tract

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role of dilation, constriction, and blockage on breath

dilation: easier to breath, constriction: harder to breath and blockage: increase resistance and makes it difficult to breath

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surface tension

reduced by surfactant

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compliance

measure how easy it is to expand the lungs

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what can cause increased compliance

emphysema: individual alveoli get destroyed and makes it harder to exchange oxygen

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what can cause decreased compliance

broken rib, no surfactant, scar tissue

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pneumothorax

if intrapleural pressure becomes equal or higher than atmospheric pressure, it no longer exerts suction effect that prevents lungs from collapsing. The added pressure makes lungs immediately collapse. Usually from puncture to lungs

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Restrictive lung disease

decrease pulmonary compliance (fibrosis, neuromuscular disease)

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obstructive lung diseases

increase airway resistance. Easier to breath in than breath out. Trap oxygen poor, carbon dioxide rich air in airways (emphysema, bronchitis, asthma)

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Definition of respiratory rate

breaths per minute

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tidal volume

air moved during one respiratory cycle

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respiratory minute volume

amount of air moved per minute
= TV x RR

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Anatomic dead space

air volume in conducting airways

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alveolar ventilation

amount of air that reaches the alveoli in a minute

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ERV

amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after normal exhalation

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residual volume

air that remains in lungs after maximal exhalation

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IRV

amount of air that can forcefully be inhaled above tidal volume

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Inspiratory capacity

the total amount of sir that can be inhaled

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Functional residual capacity

the amount of air left in lungs after a quiet exhalation

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vital capacity

the maximal amount of air that can be moved in and out of the lungs

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total lung capacity

total volume of the lungs (all four volumes together).

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how to calculate respiratory minute volume

RR x TV

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how to calculate alveolar ventilation

RR x (TV – Vd)

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AV depends on what?

RR and TV, because Vd does not really change

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how to calculate vital capacity

ERV + TV + IRV

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how to calculate total lung capacity

TV + ERV + IRV + RV

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Dalton’s law

each gas in a mixture exerts its own pressure called partial pressure relative to its abundance. The total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of all of its component gases.

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partial pressure

how much of a gas there is

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What happens to oxygen partial pressure at higher altitudes

it decreases

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Partial pressure of oxygen in alveoli

104 mmHg

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Partial pressure of CO2 in alveoli

40 mmHg

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Henrys law

higher partial pressure means more dissolved gas; lower partial pressure the less dissolved gas

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the amount of gas dissolved depends on

solubility (CO2 has better solubility then O2)

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the 5 factors that determine efficiency of gas exchange

 Difference in partial pressure – bigger gradient difference will give you more diffusion
 Distance for diffusion
 Lipid solubility of gasses
 Total surface area for diffusion
 Respiration-perfusion matching

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to get better gas exchange you need

 bigger pressure gradient
 small distance for diffusion
 good lipid solubility
 large surface area for diffusion (more alveoli)
 good respiration perfusion matching

93

Carbon dioxide transport in blood

o Dissolved in plasma
o Bound to protein portion of Hb

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formula how CO2 is converted to carbonic acid and from there to H+ and bicarbonate

CO2 + H2O -- H2CO3 --- H+ + HCO3-

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What happens to each product of the CO2 and H2O reaction?

Hydrogen binds to hemoglobin, and bicarbonate leaves the red blood cell and dissolves in plasma

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carbonic anhydrase

turns CO2 and water into H2CO3 (carbonic acid)

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voluntary vs involuntary control of respiration

Voluntary: make decision to hold breath or breath and involuntary neural control: in the medulla oblongata and is stronger than voluntary

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Role of RRG

all neurons involved in creating basic rhythm for breathing in the medulla oblongata

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VRG

involved in control of muscles for inspiration and expiration

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DRG

involved in control of inspiration and processing of sensory input

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How chemoreceptors work

balance respiratory rates. Triggered by low oxygen and high CO2

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what is hypercapnia

triggers hyperventilation

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hypocapnia

triggers hypoventilation

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Effect of baroreceptor reflex on breathing

speed up breathing and raise blood pressure

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Hering-Breuer reflex

stretch receptors in lungs and prevents them from over expanding or under inflating

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Protective reflexes

sigh, yawn, cough, sneeze

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Other factors that affect breathing

stress, pain, change in temp, swallowing…

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respiration-perfusion matching

blood goes to where fresh air is and air goes to where the blood is

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Vestibular folds

close off glottis during swallowing and play no role in sound production

110

how do vocal folds work

“vocal cords” vibrate to make sound.

111

alveoli

ends of respiratory trees within alveolar sacs. Sites of gas exchange