Practical #3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Practical #3 Deck (44):
1

tidal volume

volume of air moved in and out of the lungs during a normal breathing cycle

2

vital capacity

all the air that can be moved into and out of the lungs by breathing

3

ERV

Volume of air which can be forcefully exhaled below a normal tidal volume

4

IRV

Volume of air which can be forcefully inhaled above a normal tidal volume

5

TLC

all the air in the lungs from completely empty to completely full

6

Residual volume

the volume of air still remaining in the lungs after forced exhale

7

respiratory rate

number of breaths per minute

8

what did we use to measure lung volume

the spirometer

9

how do you calculate respiratory minute volume

(RMV) = TV x RR (breathing rate)

10

vital capacity formula

VC = TV + IRV + ERV

11

% of predicted VC

% of predicted VC = (your average VC/predicted VC) x 100

12

urinalysis experiment (the steps we took)

1. obtain urine sample 2. dip test strips in urine 3. wait 60 secs until reading 4. compare colors to provided key

13

normal color of urine

pale yellow

14

normal ph of urine

4.5-8

15

Normal is to be negative for what in urine

glucose, proteins, ketones, RBCs, Bilirubin, WBCs.

16

specific gravity

the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a standard. urine compared to water is usually 1.02-1.05

17

casts?

the urinary sediments that are formed by coagulation of albuminous material in the kidney tubules.

18

pyuria

pus in the urine usually from infection

19

albuminuria

albumine in urine usually from kidney disease

20

glycosuria

has glucose in urine which is a sign of diabetes

21

hematuria

blood in urine. kidney problems

22

hemoglobinuria

hemoglobin in urine. can indicate RBC destruction

23

ketonuria

ketone bodies in urine can show diabetes mellitus or starvation

24

acid

substance that causes increase in H+

25

base

substance that removes H+

26

buffer

substance that can act as either acid or base, depending on the needs

27

normal blood ph

7.35-7.45

28

below 7.35 ph

acidosis

29

above 7.45 ph

alkalosis

30

normal pCO2 of blood

35-45. above is acidosis. below is alkalosis

31

normal HCO3 of blood

22-26. above is alkalosis. below is acidosis

32

Causes for respiratory acidosis

hypoventilation, rebreathing, hypercapnia (too much CO2), respiratory problems like emphysema, heart failure

33

Respiratory compensation for respiratory acidosis

increase rate of breathing (get rid of CO2)

34

Renal compensation for respiratory acidosis

excrete H+ and conserve bicarbonate

35

does respiratory or renal compensation happen first

respiratory compensation happens first and is the faster response and if it doesn’t solve the problem then there is renal compensation

36

Causes for respiratory alkalosis

hypocapnia, hyperventilation due to pain, anxiety, etc

37

Respiratory compensation for respiratory alkalosis

lower respiratory rate solves the problem, no renal compensation necessary.

38

Causes for metabolic acidosis:

increased acid production by muscles, diarrhea

39

Respiratory compensation for metabolic acidosis

increase rate of breathing (get rid of CO2)

40

Renal compensation for metabolic acidosis

excrete H+ and conserve bicarbonate

41

Causes for metabolic alkalosis

increased bicarbonate levels, vomiting

42

Respiratory compensation for metabolic alkalosis

lower respiratory rate

43

Renal compensation for metabolic alkalosis

excrete bicarbonate and conserve H+

44

chemical buffers in the body

carbonic acid bircarbinate buffer system, protein buffers, and phosphate buffers