What are thalaseemia syndroms
heritable anemias that have defect in synthesis of alpha or beta chains of normal hemoglobin tetramer
What is the lifespan of neutrophils?
In circulation: 6-7 hours In connective Tissue : 1-4 days
What type of function do neutrophils have?
antibacterial ( phagocytic properties) inflammation (homing)
Why are neutrophils called neutrophils?
because of cytoplasmic gruanules following wright-giemsa staining -the secoundary one -very pale pink cytoplasm (close in color to erthocyte)
Eosinophil is what percent of the total leukocyte population?
What type of nucleus does an esonophil have?
What distinguishing feature does an esonophil have?
crystalline center inside the specific granules
What type of leukocyte is an esonophil
What is in the granular contents of an esonophil?
Eosinophil peroxidase Major basic protein Eosinophil cationic protein
What does Eosinophil peroxidase do ?
it binds to microorganisms and facilitates their killing by macrophage
What does major basic protein do?
predominant component of teh cyrstalline center of eosinophil granule -binds to and DISRUPTS membrane of parasites (by Fc receptor) -causes basophils to release HISTAMINE by ca dep mechanism
what does eosinophil cationic protein do?
neutralizes herparin with MBP causes the fragmentation of parasites
What is the body's primary defense against parasiteS?
What is the lifespan of an eosinophil?
5 to 8 hrs in ciruclation 8 to 12 days in homing
what is the function of an eosinophil
allergic/ hypersensitivity reactions (bronchial asthma) FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE AGAINST PARASITES
Which leukocyte has IgG receptors?
What leukocyte triggers bronchial asthma?
what type of leukocyte is a basophil?
What color are the refractile granules of an esonophil?
Basophils are what percent of total leukocytes ?
less then one percent
What type of nuclues do basophils have?
What type of cytoplasmic granules do basophils have?
What is inside the cytoplasmic granules of basophils?
suflated or carboxylated acidiic prtoeins ie. heparin
How are basophils similar to mast cells?
they express IgG on their surface and release Histamine
the release of histamine
mediates allergic reactions
and increase in the number of basophils more then (150_
Where is basophilia observed?
acute hypersensitivity reactions viral infections chronic inflammatory conditions (rhumatoid arthritis)
what is the function of basophils?
allergic/ hypersensitivity reactions, relase of histamine
The nucleus in which granulocyte is obscured by cytoplasmic granules?
Which leukocytes are agranuloctyes?
lymphocytes and monocytes
have round or indented nucleus contain only lysosomal type, primary glands`
What percentage of total WBC do lymphocyts consist of ?
20 to 40%
What is the largest WBC?
Which are more predominant small lymphocytes or large?
Where do lymphocytes orginate during fetal development?
yok sac liver spleen
Where do lymphocytes originate post natal life?.
bone marrow thymus
What is the primary function of lymphocytes
immune and dfensive responses ( B & T cells ; natrual killer cells)
in what size of lymphocyte are the primary granules seen in
in large lymphocytes
What are the primary granules in lymphocytes?
What are the three categorize of lymphocytes?
B lymphocytes T lymphocytes Natural killer cells
Where are b lymphocytes produced?
Where are t lymphocytes produced
produced in the bone marrow but complete maturation in the thymus
natural killer cell
less abundant class oflymphoctye (cytotoxic)
What are the secondary lymphoid organs?
lymph nodes spleen lymphoid aggregates of the Gi tract and respiratory tract
What type of leukocyte has an indented nucleus?
what type of leukocyte has a kidney shaped nucleus?
What percentage of total WBC does monocytes consist of ?
2 to 8 percent
What is the order of number of leukocytes seen in blood
neutrophil lymphocytes esonophil monocyte basophil
What is the largest leukocyte?
How long is the lifespan of a monocyte>
ciruclate in blood for about 20 hrs then enter tissues to become macrophages
Which ones are more efficient at phagocytic activities? macrophage derived monocytes neutrophils
macrophage derived monocytes
what is the function of a monocyte
phagocytosis(osteoclast kupffer cells, microgilia)
Platlets are derived from
magakaryocyte under control of thrombopoietin
What are the four types of granules in the cytoplasm of a platelet?
alpha granules dense core granules lysosomes peroxisomes
What type of nuclues do platelets have?
what is the function of platelets?
What is in the hyalomere of a platelet?
microtubules and microfilaments
What is in the granulmere of a platelet?
contains granules and lysosomes
What is gray platelet syndrome?
few alpha granules ..bleeding
What do alpha granules do?
platelet derived growth factor _> leads to endohelial cell mottosis
What does dense core granule do?
secretes serotonin which leads to vasoconstriction
macroplatlets issue with Gp1b receptor on surface of platelet
secreted by endothelial cells inhibitor of platelet aggregation and secretion of ADP
Where is hematopoesis during the first trimester
islands of hematopoiesis in yok sac
where is hamtopoesis during the 2nd trimester?`
liver and in the spleen
where is hematopoesis during the last trimester
bone marrow has two compartments
1. marrow stormal compartment hematopoietic cell compartment
marrow stormal compartment
adipose cells fibroblast stormal cells vascular endothelial cells macrophages blood vessels PROVIDES NICHES FOR STEM CELLS
hematopoietic cell compartment
occpy sites in bone marrow called niches and have capcities for self renewel growth and fifferentiation and maturation
mature hematopoietic cells
translocated from site of growth through the sinusoid wall by transendothelial migration into openings of the sinus then goes to circulation
blood vessel that is a cpillary with open pores
What empties into the central longitudinal vein
Describe erythroid linage
1. proerthroblast (derives from mature progenitor with stimulation from erthropoietin) Nucleoli are present 2.basophilic erthroblast ( intense basophilic cytoplasm (purple) which indicates presence of polyribosomes; nucleoli not usually seen MITOSIS) 3. polychromatophilic ( no nucleolus visible no cell division after this ) 4.orthochromatic erythroblast (extremely dense (pyknotic) nucleus; POSTMITOTIC) 5. reticulocyte ( anucleated cell; ink cytoplasm )
the early stages of erthroid colony forming unit
how can you tell the difference between mitotic and post mitotic erythoblast?
in the mitotic erthoblast there is euchromatic chromatin in the postmitotic erthroblast there is herterochromatin (dense)
Describe the myeloid progeny
With the granulocate-macrophage cfu eosinophil cf basophil cfu
Descrie the myeloid progeny
myeloblast/ promyelocyte myelocyte metamyelocyte Band form (nuclues is u shaped...mature cytoplasm)
In which phase of the myloid process can the golgi region be distinguished
myelocyte and metamyelocyte
Describe the monoblast progeny
monoblast (macrophage forming ) promonocyte monocyte macrophage
Lack of oxygen (hypoxia) leads to decrease of erthrocytes stimulates the release of
erythropoietin from the kidney which causes the stimulation of erythroid CFU
Which phases of the myloid progeny are mitotically dividing?
myeloblast promyelocytes myelocytes
nucleoli are present granule free
Nucleoli and primary granules are present
nucleoli not present round or indented nucleus slightly identid primary granules specific granules LAST STAGE CAPABLE OF MITOTIS
eccentric bean shaped nucleus has condense chromatin more specific granules then primary golgi region can be distinguished
nucleus is u shpaed with rounded ends golgi region can be distinguished
1. serial mittoic division withouth cell division (endoreduplication) tightly packed multilobulated nuclues 2. cytoplasmic maturation (increase in the # of dense core granules, alpha granules and the network of memebrane channels and tubules known as network demarcation membrane sytem) 3. proplatelet shdeeind into sinusoids of bone marrow
network demarcation channels
they are intially formed by the invagination of the plasma membrane coalese to generate proplatelets
stimulates megakaryocytes bleeding
stimulates erthroid progeny helps with anemia
Stem cell factor
binds to c-kit receptor ( a tyrosine kinase) on hematopoeitic stem cells
Where is the source of growth factors
marrow stromal compartment cell (outside bone marrow)
oval shaped RBC
defect with submembranous cytoskeleteon
Why is splenctomy curative for hereditary ellipotcytosis and spherocytosis
because spleen is primary site for descruction of those types of cells so removing it would fix distruction issue.