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Flashcards in Bood and Hematopoeisis Deck (111):
1

What are thalaseemia syndroms

heritable anemias that have defect in synthesis of alpha or beta chains of normal hemoglobin tetramer

2

What is the lifespan of neutrophils?

In circulation: 6-7 hours In connective Tissue : 1-4 days

3

What type of function do neutrophils have?

antibacterial ( phagocytic properties) inflammation (homing)

4

Why are neutrophils called neutrophils?

because of cytoplasmic gruanules following wright-giemsa staining -the secoundary one -very pale pink cytoplasm (close in color to erthocyte)

5

Eosinophil is what percent of the total leukocyte population?

1-5%

6

What type of nucleus does an esonophil have?

bilobed

7

What distinguishing feature does an esonophil have?

crystalline center inside the specific granules

8

What type of leukocyte is an esonophil

granulocyte

9

What is in the granular contents of an esonophil?

Eosinophil peroxidase Major basic protein Eosinophil cationic protein

10

What does Eosinophil peroxidase do ?

it binds to microorganisms and facilitates their killing by macrophage

11

What does major basic protein do?

predominant component of teh cyrstalline center of eosinophil granule -binds to and DISRUPTS membrane of parasites (by Fc receptor) -causes basophils to release HISTAMINE by ca dep mechanism

12

what does eosinophil cationic protein do?

neutralizes herparin with MBP causes the fragmentation of parasites

13

What is the body's primary defense against parasiteS?

eosinophils

14

What is the lifespan of an eosinophil?

5 to 8 hrs in ciruclation 8 to 12 days in homing

15

what is the function of an eosinophil

allergic/ hypersensitivity reactions (bronchial asthma) FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE AGAINST PARASITES

16

Which leukocyte has IgG receptors?

Basophil

17

What leukocyte triggers bronchial asthma?

Eosinophil

18

what type of leukocyte is a basophil?

granulocyte

19

What color are the refractile granules of an esonophil?

bright red

20

Basophils are what percent of total leukocytes ?

less then one percent

21

What type of nuclues do basophils have?

bilobed

22

What type of cytoplasmic granules do basophils have?

metachromic

23

What is inside the cytoplasmic granules of basophils?

suflated or carboxylated acidiic prtoeins ie. heparin

24

How are basophils similar to mast cells?

they express IgG on their surface and release Histamine

25

the release of histamine

mediates allergic reactions

26

Basophillia

and increase in the number of basophils more then (150_

27

Where is basophilia observed?

acute hypersensitivity reactions viral infections chronic inflammatory conditions (rhumatoid arthritis)

28

what is the function of basophils?

allergic/ hypersensitivity reactions, relase of histamine

29

The nucleus in which granulocyte is obscured by cytoplasmic granules?

basophil

30

Which leukocytes are agranuloctyes?

lymphocytes and monocytes

31

describe agranuloccytes

have round or indented nucleus contain only lysosomal type, primary glands`

32

What percentage of total WBC do lymphocyts consist of ?

20 to 40%

33

What is the largest WBC?

monocytes

34

Which are more predominant small lymphocytes or large?

small

35

Where do lymphocytes orginate during fetal development?

yok sac liver spleen

36

Where do lymphocytes originate post natal life?.

bone marrow thymus

37

What is the primary function of lymphocytes

immune and dfensive responses ( B & T cells ; natrual killer cells)

38

in what size of lymphocyte are the primary granules seen in

in large lymphocytes

39

What are the primary granules in lymphocytes?

lysosomes

40

What are the three categorize of lymphocytes?

B lymphocytes T lymphocytes Natural killer cells

41

Where are b lymphocytes produced?

bone marrow`

42

Where are t lymphocytes produced

produced in the bone marrow but complete maturation in the thymus

43

natural killer cell

less abundant class oflymphoctye (cytotoxic)

44

What are the secondary lymphoid organs?

lymph nodes spleen lymphoid aggregates of the Gi tract and respiratory tract

45

What type of leukocyte has an indented nucleus?

lymphocyte

46

what type of leukocyte has a kidney shaped nucleus?

monocyte

47

What percentage of total WBC does monocytes consist of ?

2 to 8 percent

48

What is the order of number of leukocytes seen in blood

neutrophil lymphocytes esonophil monocyte basophil

49

What is the largest leukocyte?

monocyte

50

How long is the lifespan of a monocyte>

ciruclate in blood for about 20 hrs then enter tissues to become macrophages

51

Which ones are more efficient at phagocytic activities? macrophage derived monocytes neutrophils

macrophage derived monocytes

52

what is the function of a monocyte

phagocytosis(osteoclast kupffer cells, microgilia)

53

Platlets are derived from

magakaryocyte under control of thrombopoietin

54

What are the four types of granules in the cytoplasm of a platelet?

alpha granules dense core granules lysosomes peroxisomes

55

What type of nuclues do platelets have?

multilobed

56

what is the function of platelets?

blood coagulation

57

What is in the hyalomere of a platelet?

microtubules and microfilaments

58

What is in the granulmere of a platelet?

contains granules and lysosomes

59

What is gray platelet syndrome?

few alpha granules ..bleeding

60

What do alpha granules do?

platelet derived growth factor _> leads to endohelial cell mottosis

61

What does dense core granule do?

secretes serotonin which leads to vasoconstriction

62

Bernard-soulier syndrome

macroplatlets issue with Gp1b receptor on surface of platelet

63

prostacylcin

secreted by endothelial cells inhibitor of platelet aggregation and secretion of ADP

64

Where is hematopoesis during the first trimester

islands of hematopoiesis in yok sac

65

where is hamtopoesis during the 2nd trimester?`

liver and in the spleen

66

where is hematopoesis during the last trimester

bonemarrow

67

bone marrow has two compartments

1. marrow stormal compartment hematopoietic cell compartment

68

marrow stormal compartment

adipose cells fibroblast stormal cells vascular endothelial cells macrophages blood vessels PROVIDES NICHES FOR STEM CELLS

69

hematopoietic cell compartment

highlyl vascularized

70

hematopoietic cells

occpy sites in bone marrow called niches and have capcities for self renewel growth and fifferentiation and maturation

71

mature hematopoietic cells

translocated from site of growth through the sinusoid wall by transendothelial migration into openings of the sinus then goes to circulation

72

sinusoid wall

blood vessel that is a cpillary with open pores

73

What empties into the central longitudinal vein

venous sinus

74

Describe erythroid linage

1. proerthroblast (derives from mature progenitor with stimulation from erthropoietin) Nucleoli are present 2.basophilic erthroblast ( intense basophilic cytoplasm (purple) which indicates presence of polyribosomes; nucleoli not usually seen MITOSIS) 3. polychromatophilic ( no nucleolus visible no cell division after this ) 4.orthochromatic erythroblast (extremely dense (pyknotic) nucleus; POSTMITOTIC) 5. reticulocyte ( anucleated cell; ink cytoplasm )

75

Erthropoeitin stimulates....

the early stages of erthroid colony forming unit

76

how can you tell the difference between mitotic and post mitotic erythoblast?

in the mitotic erthoblast there is euchromatic chromatin in the postmitotic erthroblast there is herterochromatin (dense)

77

Describe the myeloid progeny

With the granulocate-macrophage cfu eosinophil cf basophil cfu

78

Descrie the myeloid progeny

myeloblast/ promyelocyte myelocyte metamyelocyte Band form (nuclues is u shaped...mature cytoplasm)

79

In which phase of the myloid process can the golgi region be distinguished

myelocyte and metamyelocyte

80

Describe the monoblast progeny

monoblast (macrophage forming ) promonocyte monocyte macrophage

81

Lack of oxygen (hypoxia) leads to decrease of erthrocytes stimulates the release of

erythropoietin from the kidney which causes the stimulation of erythroid CFU

82

Which phases of the myloid progeny are mitotically dividing?

myeloblast promyelocytes myelocytes

83

Myeloblast

nucleoli are present granule free

84

promyelocyte

Nucleoli and primary granules are present

85

myelocyte

nucleoli not present round or indented nucleus slightly identid primary granules specific granules LAST STAGE CAPABLE OF MITOTIS

86

metamyelocyte

eccentric bean shaped nucleus has condense chromatin more specific granules then primary golgi region can be distinguished

87

Band form

nucleus is u shpaed with rounded ends golgi region can be distinguished

88

Megakaryoctyes

1. serial mittoic division withouth cell division (endoreduplication) tightly packed multilobulated nuclues 2. cytoplasmic maturation (increase in the # of dense core granules, alpha granules and the network of memebrane channels and tubules known as network demarcation membrane sytem) 3. proplatelet shdeeind into sinusoids of bone marrow

89

network demarcation channels

they are intially formed by the invagination of the plasma membrane coalese to generate proplatelets

90

Thrombopoietin

stimulates megakaryocytes bleeding

91

Erythropoietin

stimulates erthroid progeny helps with anemia

92

Stem cell factor

binds to c-kit receptor ( a tyrosine kinase) on hematopoeitic stem cells

93

Where is the source of growth factors

marrow stromal compartment cell (outside bone marrow)

94

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band forms

95

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basophil

96

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basophilic erthyoidblast

97

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eosinophil

98

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large lymphocyte

99

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monocyte

100

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myeloblast

101

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myelocyte

102

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neutrophil

103

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orthochromic ethryoblast

104

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othochromic ethryocyte

105

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polychromophillic erthoblast

106

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proerythoicyte

107

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promyelocyte

108

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reticulocyte

109

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small lymphocyte

110

Hereditary Elliptocytosis

oval shaped RBC

defect with submembranous cytoskeleteon

curative

111

Why is splenctomy curative for hereditary ellipotcytosis and spherocytosis

because spleen is primary site for descruction of those types of cells so removing it would fix distruction issue.