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1

How does Traumatic reticulitis occur?

Following ingestion of sharp metal objects and there localisation in the reticular wall.

2

What are the clinical signs of traumatic reticulitis?

Rectal temperature is 39-39.5, sudden onset anorexia, dramatic fall in milk production, animal stands with an arched back and moves reluctantly, last to enter milking parlour, complete ruminal atony, initial distension then becomes tucked up and guant, refusal to turn sharp corners, ears back, fixed glazed stare, constipated, defecation and urination frequently accompanied by a grunt. Clinical signs only observed when FB is in contact with peritoneal lining of abdominal cavity.

3

What test can confirm traumatic reticulitis?

A pain response is elicited when back is dipped behind withers or pressure applied slowly behind the xiphersternum with a pole then suddenly released.

4

How can your diagnosis of traumatic reticulitis be confirmed?

Ultrasonography will identify excess peritoneal fluid and exudate/fibrinous reaction surrounding the penetrating FB.

5

What will peritoneal sampling reveal with traumatic reticulitis?

High protein and cell count comprised mainly of neutrophils and presence of bacteria, indicates septic peritonitis.

6

How can traumatic reticulitis be treated?

High left flank laporotomy under distal paravertebral analgesia. Remove foreign body via rumen and pass hand along rumen floor upwards and forward into reticulum. Recovery is slow.

7

What are the differentials for traumatic peritonitis after the initial 2-3 days of classical clinical signs?

Peritonitis of differing aetiology, liver abscessation endocarditis, chronic suppurative pneumonia/caudal vena cava thrombosis, pleural abscess, septic pericarditis.

8

When is an LDA most commonly seen?

Occurs during the winter housing period in dairy cows most commonly but not exclusively in the month following calving. Some association with hypocalcamiea, twinning, endometritis and high concentrate low fibre rations. Increasingly, LDA is seen in recently calved heifers and during the summer months. Never seen in suckler cows or intensively fattened cattle.

9

What are the clinical signs associated with an LDA?

Clinical signs are most severe when an LDA occurs in conjunction with acute metritis in the 5-7 days after calving. The cow is often febrile, depressed, toxaemic, anorexic, with a reduced milk yield. Such cases may also have already suffered a number of bouts of hypocalcaemia. There is profuse, often foetid diarrhoea.

10

What will be detected on clinical exam of an animal with an LDA?

auscultation and succussion reveals high pitched tinkling sounds - the distended abomasum occupies the cranio dorsal area of the left side f the abdominal cavity.

11

What would paracentesis of the displaced abomasum contents reveal in an LDA?

Fluid containing no protozoa and a pH of 2.

12

What are the pros and cons of rolling the cow for LDA treatment?

Rolling the cow takes time, requires three people and may only be 40% effective at best. there is risk of inhalation of rumen contents when the cow is in dorsal recumbency especially if she has been heavily sedated.

13

What is the preferred treatment for LDA?

Surgical correction. Right flank omentopexy is preferred method.

14

Describe the right flank approach for treatment of LDA?

Administer IV NSAIDS. Surgery is performed in the standing cow under distal paravertebral analgesia. A right laparotomy incision is made and the abomasum deflated using a 14 guage needle connected to a flutter valve or suction pump. An omentopexy is performed by talking 4cm bites of the omentum or pylorus and then suture continued to close the peritoneum and internal oblique muscle. Oral fluids used to distend shrunken rumen.

15

What are the potential differential diagnosis for a case with an LDA?

Rumen void syndrome, gas cap in rumen, vagus indigestion, pneumoperitoneum.

16

How is toggling of the abomasum performed?

Toggling of the abomasum through the ventral abdominal wall overlying the tympanitic abomasum has been described as a more cost effective procedure than right flank omentopexy. The cow is cast into dorsal recumbency and the abomasum located in the midline by percussion. two toggles with nylon sutures are introduced into the abomasum through wide bore trochlars, then the nylon sutures are tied together.

17

What is the aetiology of a right sided displacement of the abomasum?

Occurs occasionally in dairy cows 3-6 weeks following calving. Less common than LDA. Probably due to a primary distension of the abomasum due to atony caused by high concentrate intake and secondary fermentation. Accumulation of fluid and gas leads to distension and dorsal displacement on the RHS of the abdomen.

18

What are the clinical signs associated with RDA?

History of poor milk yield, inappetance and weight loss. Auscultation reveals high pitched tympanic sounds, just cranial to the right sublumbar fossa. Torsion of the abomasum may occasionally result.

19

What is the treatment recommended for RDA?

Reported treatments include 400mls 40% calcium borogluconate iv and substitute concentrates with hay for 3-5 days, plus oral and i/v fluids as necessary. Hyoscine has been reported to be useful but little supporting evidence. Right omentopexy may relieve the problem but why this is succesful is uncertain.

20

What complications can occur with abomasal ulcers in calves?

Likely to be complicated by secondary fungal infection of the ulcer as such cases have often received prolonged oral antibiotic treatment by the farmer. Oral electrolytes will maintain the calf but prognosis is poor for those cases that will not suck.

21

What are the clinical signs of abomasal ulcers in adult dairy cows?

Clinical signs include poor milk production in the early PP period, weight loss and melena. Very low pcv.

22

How may abomasal impaction occur?

Recognised during the winter months in beef cattle fed poor quality diets of wheat straw and liquid urea supplements only.

23

What are the clinical signs of abomasal impaction?

Poor coat condition, slow dull with a long dry winter coat, abdomen is often pear shaped, normal temperature, very scant hard balls of faeces with copious mucus in rectum. Very sluggish rumen. The rumen can easily be pitted with a clenched fist through the flank.

24

What is the treatment of abomasal impaction?

Initially 250g sodium chloride in 25-50l of water by stomach tube. Multivitamins can be given iv. repeat treatment day 2 if necessary. 5-10 litres mineral oil or liquid paraffin have been used. Avoid feeding sub maintenance rations to suckler cows and store cattle.

25

What is the aetiology of caecal dilation and torsion?

Occurs in dairy cows fed restricted roughage and high levels of concentrates. Also may occur following a change of pasture. Incompletely fermented carbohydrate reaching the caecum is fermented and the resultant volatile fatty acids produced cae caecal atony. Decreased motility leads to dilation, impaction and possible torsion.

26

What are the clinical signs of caecal dilatation and torsion?

Drop in milk yield over several days and poor appetite. The animal shows tenesmus but there are scant faeces in the rectum. rumen activity is normal but the cow is drawn in.

27

What is the treatment of caecal dilation and torsion?

Remission of the caecal dilation has been recorded following transportation to surgery facility. ACcess is achieved through a right flank laparotomy under distal paravertebral anaesthesia. Exteriorisation and drainage through an incision made in the blind end of the caecum is a simple procedure. Recovery of previous milk yield may take several weeks.

28

What are the clinical signs of infected patent urachus?

Affected calves are poorly grown, intermittently febrile and may show pain on urination. Urinalysis is helpful in the diagnosis. A corded structure up to 2cm in diameter may be felt on deep palpation extending form the umbilicus to the apex of the bladder but this is not always easy especially if there is considerable painful umbilical reaction.

29

What age can you use rubber rings on calves lambs and goat kids?

Up to 7 days old without anaesthetic.

30

What age are you required to use anaesthetic in calves for castration?

>2 months