Flashcards in Vet Prep/ Soft tissue Deck (182)
A 1-year old female spayed Doberman Pinscher has presented after being hit by a car. Initial chest radiographs show mild contusions, and the patient appears to be otherwise stable. A right mid-shaft long oblique femoral fracture has been identified. Routine pre-operative blood work is unremarkable. A buccal mucosal bleeding test (BMBT) is elevated at 6 minutes. What will you administer prior to surgery?
A dairyman's favorite cow was bred by a new bull a few weeks ago and now his cow has pyometra. What agent is most likely responsible for causing the cow's pyometra?
The correct answer is tritrichomonas foetus. This organism is commonly associated with a post-coital pyometra in addition to causing early embryonic death. Campylobacter is a cause of early embryonic death but does not usually result in pyometra. Brucella will result in late term abortion. Leptospirosis is a cause of mid- to late-gestation abortions and not post-coital pyometras.
You perform a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test on a dog you suspect has Cushing's syndrome. The 4-hour blood cortisol level and 8-hour blood cortisol level are approximately equally elevated above the normal range. What can you conclude from this information?
The correct answer is you should run a high-dose dexamethasone suppression test. Elevated blood cortisol concentration 4 hours and 8 hours post low-dose dexamethasone administration is diagnostic for hyperadrenocorticism, but it does not allow differentiation between PDH and a cortisol secreting adrenal tumor. Dexamethasone is more rapidly metabolized in dogs with either type of hyperadrenocorticism (approximately 4 hours to metabolize as opposed to 30 hours in normal dogs). In PDH animals, the 4-hour post-cortisol concentration may sometimes be suppressed, whereas cortisol from adrenal tumors will not be suppressed after administration of a low dose of dexamethasone. A high-dose dexamethasone test will suppress a larger percentage of PDH patients (up to 75% will be suppressed, showing a decrease in cortisol after 4 hours). Less reliable tests to differentiate PDH from an adrenal tumor include endogenous plasma ACTH concentration or abdominal ultrasound.
You are examining a 7-year old Thoroughbred gelding for a 5-day history of anorexia and jaundice. Which of the following enzymes would you consider to be liver specific in the horse?
Sorbitol Dehydrogenase (SDH) and Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT)
A dog presents to your clinic for fever and lymphadenopathy. You perform an aspirate and see large, bipolar staining coccobacilli. The owner mentions that he saw his dog eating a rat a few days ago. What is causing the dog's illness?
The correct answer is Yersinia pestis. In order to make this determination remember that Yersinia pestis is usually transmitted to cats and dogs as a result of ingesting infected rodents or via bites from the prey's fleas. Dog and cat fleas are poor vectors of Plague. Dogs usually recover and you may lance the "buboes" and flush it, but dispose of organic material properly.
You are starting insulin therapy for a newly diagnosed diabetic feline patient. Blood glucose is 520 mg/dl (60-120 mg/dl). Urinalysis shows 3+ glucose and is negative for ketones with a trace of protein. Which of the following tests should this patient and all diabetic patients receive upon initial diagnosis?
All newly diagnosed diabetic patients should have their urine cultured. Diabetics are prone to getting urinary tract infections due to the chronic presence of glucose in their urine. Any underlying infection can lead to insulin resistance and make regulation of diabetes difficult to achieve.
Blood pressure and ECG are good tests for all patients in general but aren't necessarily tests that are directly related to diabetes regulation.
A thyroid level should be checked in all older cats, for general health screening, but hyperthyroidism is not associated with diabetes mellitus. If a patient has diabetes which is difficult to control, concurrent hyperthyroidism should be ruled out.
Fructosamine level is helpful in trying to determine if a cat actually has diabetes if their glucose level is elevated and also as a follow up to determine regulation. Cats that have markedly elevated glucose levels, glucosuria, and clinical symptoms of diabetes do not necessarily need to have a fructosamine checked at the time of diagnosis.
You have encountered white muscle disease in a large commercial flock of sheep, and wish to examine the selenium status of the flock. You decide to collect samples. What samples should be collected in order to accurately assess the selenium status of the flock?
Whole blood from 20 random sheep to determine selenium levels
A relative calls you to ask how she can stop her 4-year old Cockapoo from begging for food at the table. You advise her not to pay any attention to the dog when it is showing this behavior. What behavioral principle is this?
Extinction of operant conditioning
Negative reinforcement occurs when a behavior is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus thereby increasing that behavior's frequency. An example is a loud noise continuously sounding until a lever is pressed, upon which the loud noise is removed. This will encourage the behavior of pressing the lever.
Negative punishment, also called punishment by contingent withdrawal, occurs when a behavior is followed by the removal of a favorable stimulus, such as taking away a child's toy following an undesired behavior, resulting in a decrease in that behavior.
Avoidance learning is when a behavior results in the cessation of an aversive stimulus. For example, holding your ears to shield them from a loud, high-pitched sound helps avoid the aversive stimulation of that obnoxious sound.
Noncontingent reinforcement is the delivery of reinforcing stimuli regardless of the animal's behavior. This causes that behavior to decrease because it is not required in order to receive the reward.
You finish a spay procedure on a young kitten and she regurgitates upon recovery after her endotracheal tube cuff was deflated. You wipe out her mouth and she appears to recover uneventfully. The surgery otherwise went well. Two days later she presents with a temperature of 103.4 F (39.7 C), she is a little lethargic, and she has a mild increased respiratory effort. You suspect she may have aspirated and now has pneumonia post-operatively. You perform chest radiographs. Which type of lung pattern is most typical of aspiration pneumonia?
Pneumonia is most commonly characterized by an increase of pulmonary densities with a patchy or lobar pattern. Aspiration usually involves the right middle and cranial lung lobes.
One study indicated that the aspiration pneumonia distribution patterns depend on patient position at the time of aspiration. In ventrodorsal, dorsoventral and standing dorsoventral positions, the right cranial, middle, and left cranial lung lobes are prone to aspiration pneumonia.
Pleural effusion is fluid around the lungs which is not a pattern for pneumonia.
Caudodorsal pulmonary edema, also known as neurogenic pulmonary edema, is characterized clinically by a rapid onset of respiratory difficulty after a central nervous system insult. The four major causes recognized include head trauma, seizures, electrocution, and upper airway obstruction.
Bronchiolar pattern in cats is most typical of airway disease such as asthma; perihylar lymphadenopathy is more typical of fungal disease or neoplasia.
Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia is classically associated with which type of hypersensitivity reaction?
ype I (aka immediate) hypersensitivity reactions occur when re-exposure of an antigen results in an allergic reaction. The antigen is presented and causes B cell production of IgE antibodies.
Type II (aka cytotoxic) occurs when an antigen on a cell surface binds with an antibody and is then recognized by the body as being foreign. The antigen on the cell may have been a normal feature of the cell or it may have been acquired, such as a drug binding to the cell. Macrophages or dendritic cells then recognize the cell and "present the antigen" which then causes B cell proliferation and production of IgG and IgM antibodies. The antibodies bind to the cell and activate the complement cascade which results in cell lysis/destruction.
Type III (aka immune complex) occurs when there are more antigens than there are antibodies. The antigens float around in the circulation and multiple antigens may bind one antibody, thus forming an immune complex. Large complexes can be cleared by macrophages, but smaller ones may evade the macrophages.
Type IV (delayed type hypersensitivity) takes several days to occur and rather than being antibody-mediated, it is actually cell-mediated. Cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen that is in a complex with major histocompatibility complex 1 or 2. This results in proliferation and activation of the cells. Activated CD8+ T cells then destroy the antigen containing cells while activated macrophages release hydrolytic enzymes.
What is the holding layer of the stomach?
the submucosa. Use monofilament, synthetic, absorbable
Where should you incise the stomach?
An avascular area away from the pylorus
How should the stomach be closed?
Two layer - mucosa and submucosa with a simple appositional pattern, simple or continuous fine.
Then second layer : muscularis and serosa with an inverting pattern.
What is the normal size of the fundus? how can you tell if the stomach is distended?
Normal fundus 6 icsp suspect pathology
Which way does the stomach usually rotate in GDV?
90 to 360 degrees
Pylorus moves ventrally and to left,
Fundus moves to right.
How do you confirm gdv?
cannot identify pylorus on a right lateral, fundus distended.
What is an incisional gastropexy?
Antrum anchored to the body wall, which prevents pylorus moving. incise seromuscular layer of pylorus and transverse abdominus muscle and suture incision edges together.
What are the clinical signs of intestinal foreign bodies?
Vomiting, loss of appetite, abdominal discomfort, poss diarrhoea, poss melena.
Where should you incise the intestine?
Antimesenteric surface. relatively avascular. Not over FB. - distally in healthy bowel.
What is the holding layer of the intestine?
What is the common cause of intussuception?
in young animals - common, spontaneous, link to enteritis/worm burden.
In mature animals - uncommon, usually secondary to other pathology such as masses or peritonitis.
What is the common site for intussuception?
Jejunocolic at ileocaecocolic junction common.
What are the most common bacteria types found in the colon?
Gram negative anaerobes. Perioperative antibiotics indicated.
Which sort of patient can a subtotal colectomy be recommended for?
Extremely successful for management of feline megacolon. removes 90-95% of the colon & removes the ileocaecocolic junction. DOGS DO NOT TOLERATE THIS SURGERY. Post operative diarrhoea is inevitable. manageable within 12 weks usually.
What signalment is usually present with apocrine gland adenocarcinomas?
Where should you perform a cystotomy?
Ventral - readily accessible, visualise the trigone well, no increased risk of leakage. Prior to incision, perform cystocentesis to reduce spillage.
what breeds is urethral prolapse more common in ?
Young male dogs, sexually intact, brachycephalip breeds, tx- reset prolapse and castrate.
What is the most common cause of congenital urinary incontinence in dogs?
What are the causes of urge incontinence?
Unsuppressible urination as bladder fills - due to inflammation, reduce bladder volume or polyuria, e.g cystitis, urolithiasis, neoplasia, systemic causes of polyuria.