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Flashcards in Exotics Deck (247)
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Which drugs are licensed in the UK for exotics?

HVD and myxomatosis vaccines for rabbits, cyromazine for fly strike in rabbits, gentamicin and fusidic acid eye drops for rabbits, fentanyl/fluanisone for small mammal anaesthesia, isoflurane for exotic animal anaesthesia, enrofloxacin for infections in all exotic animals.


What is the analgesia of choice in birds?

Kappara receptors - butorphanol. NSAIDS


What is the analgesic of choice in small mammals?

Buprenorphine, tramadol at home. NSAIDS


Analgesic of choice in reptiles?

Butorphanol/morphine. NSAIDS


What is the spectrum of activity of enrofloxacin?

Aerobic bacteria only.


What are the most common type of bacteria in reptile and bird infections?

Gram negative aerobes. up to 50% have anaerobic bacteria involved.


Which animals should not be given fenbendazole?

Overdose in reptiles and birds leads to radiomimetic lesions (pancytopenia, GI haemorrhage) at normal dosages stress bars will occur on growing feathers.


Which animals should not be given IVERMECTIN?

Chelonians - can enter CNS and lead to depression and death


Which animals should you use metronidazole with caution?

Causes nervous signs if overdosed in birds and indigo snakes can only tolerate lower dosages.


Which animals is fipronil contraindicated in?



Which animals should itraconazole not be used in?

Grey parrots (or a lower dose) - causes an idiosyncratic reaction in grey parrots.


What species does encephalitozoon cuniculi affect?



What should you feed hedgehogs?

cat food or proprietary hedgehog diet


What is haemoproteus?

The protozoa are intracellular parasites that infect the erythrocytes. They are transmitted by blood sucking insects including mosquitoes, biting midges (Culicoides), louse flies (Hippoboscidae) and tabanid flies (Tabanidae). Infection with this genus is sometimes known as pseudomalaria because of the parasites' similarities with Plasmodium species.


What is amidostomum spp?

A gizzard worm that affects birds


How long should snakes be starved for prior to anaesthesia?

48 hours minimum


How long should lizards and chelonians be starved for prior to anaesthesia?

24 hrs


How long should passerines and small psittacines be starved for?

Just long enough to empty the crop. they have a high metabolic rate so may require assisted feeding once awake. in larger psittacines can do 4 hours.


How long should you starve myomorphic rodents before surgery

dont starve. high metabolic rate & no vomiting.


How long should you starve hystricomorphic rodents?

1-2 hrs to ensure a clear pharynx


How long should you starve rabbits before anaesthesia?

don't need starved - remove food immediately after premed.


How long should you starve ferrets before anaesthesia?

4-6 hours.


What water parameters should be tested from an aqaurium?

Temperature (at home), salinity, pH, chlorine/chloramines and nitrogenous compounds.


What is the optimum pH for pet fish?

The majority can be kept within a range of 6-8. A high pH may indicate elevated levels of ammonia and a low pH chlorine from tap water.


What are chlorine and chloramine used for?

Used in domestic water supp.ies to disinfect against bacteria and algae. both are toxic to fish. (0.2-0.3mg/l). Its toxicity will depend on the other water parameters such as pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen. chlorine is unstable and will be removed if left in an open container for 24 hours. Chloramine is more stable and will require addition of compounds or carbon filter in order to be removed.


What is the primary end product of protein catabolism and what is this converted into in fish?

Ammonia - excreted by fish through gills and kidneys. Bacteria use ammonia as an energy source. ammonia is then converted to nitrite and further to nitrate by other bacteria. Ammonia is toxic to fish and should be kept


What factors in a tank may increase ammonia levels?

Overcrowding, immature or damaged filters, excessive food or decomposed plant material.


What is the most commonly used anaesthetic drug in fish?

MS222. When used it should be buffered using sodium bicarbonate.


What is velvet disease?

A flagellate piscinoodinium pillulare is the causative againt. it imbeds in the gills, skins and fins. it cause discomfort to the fish and reduced feeding and the fish have a velvet or gold like appearance. Immersion in salt baths is a treatment option.


What is white spot? (ich)

Ichthyophthirius multifillis is a ciliate that penetrates the host's kin creating a white spot. The disruption caused leads to secondary bacterial infection. The free swimming stages of the parasites are susceptible to treatment. the parasites life cycle is 3-7 days at 24-26C. Treatment options include formalin/malachite green and salt.