Flashcards in bovine obstretics Deck (15):
2-6hrs. calf rotates to upright. contractions begin. restless, away from herd. tail raised. ends at rupture of Chorioallantoic membrane (brown fluid).
15-90mins. parturition. avg 45 mins. amnion breaks shortly after CA. thick white fluid. 15 mins between breakings. normal position is anterior with head and feet protruding first. dystocia more common in heifers.
fetal membrane expulsion. 2-12 hours. more than 12 hours requires intervention. >12 hrs is retained fetal membrane. RFM- hypocalcemia, LDA. placenta is foreign. prostaglandin and oxytocin doesn't work. placentomes have no muscular tissue. use collagenase to breakdown the connection, then contracting agents.
major cause of loss in industry. 50% of calf mortalities. 50% at first calving. 5-10% incidence. $168 per case. $400mil US.
main causes of dystocia
Size disproportion between calf and
2. Abnormal presentation, position, or
posture of the calf.
3. Twin calves.
4. Abnormal calves (monsters).
5. Other causes: weather (heat stress),
spinal axis of calf to cow. anterior v posterios and longitudinal v transverse/vertical
dorsopubic, dorsosacral (normal), dorsoileal
relationship of limbs to the rest of the body, extended is normal
thorough history, PE, vaginal exam. *clean and lubricated* cardinal rule. test for fetal life by pinching toes, suckle reflex, pull tongue, poke eye, anal reflex, pulsating umbilical cord.
normal delivery. anterior or posterior longitudinal, dorsosacral and extended posture.
alive or dead?
• Anterior Presentation:
– Swallowing reflex
– Pedal reflex
– Blinking reflex
• Posterior Presentation:
– Pedal reflex
– Anal reflex
– Pulsating umbilical cord
– Forced extraction
– Fetotomy or C-section
if pasterns are extended 10-15cm beyond vulva, shoulders should be past the iliac shafts and delivery possible.
if hocks beyond vulva, then greater trochanters should be past the iliac shfts and delivery possible. rotation may be necessary for forced extraction.
calf alive- forced extraction. calf dead- partial fetotomy.