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Flashcards in small fluffy ruminants Deck (40):
1

puberty

ram= 6 months ewe= 5-7months
buck=3 months, doe=5-7 (pygmy 2-3)

2

estrous sheep baaaaaa

17 days, 24-36 hrs baaaaa

3

estrus goat

21 days (12-36hrs)

4

ovulation sheep baaaa

24-30hrs from onset

5

ovulation goat

30-36hrs from onset

6

optimal breeding time sheep baaaaaaa

end of estrus

7

optimal breeding time goat

acceptance of buck and 12 hrs after (Twice)

8

body weight

breeding based on body weight. 60-70% total BW. goal is 3 pregnancies in 2 years (twins better)

9

breeding

small rums short day breeders. september-january.

10

syncing the breeding

p4, ram effect, melatonin on pineal gland, lights. to get into cycle, start with mimicing diestrus phase. p4 mimics CL function, starts the diestrus mimic phase. CIDR or soaked sponge with p4.

11

sheep breeding sync

cidr removed 12-14 days after insertion and injected with eCG. AI 55 hrs later. another option is to breed 50 hrs later, and again 10hrs after that

12

goat breeding sync

pgf2a and eCG given 9 days after CIDR insertion, removed day 11. AI 44 hrs later. or breed 30 hrs after and again 18 hrs after.

13

eCG

functions to stimulate follicle stimulation and ovulation

14

ecg v. p4

to induce estrus- eCG. but if syncing, pgf used and no need for eCG because follicle already developing

15

AI

progestagen vaginal devices. dont use with ram effect and melatonin because doesnt make sync.

16

melatonin

advances breeding season by 4 weeks

17

breeding management

Progestagen/progesterone impregnated vaginal devices
mimics corpus luteum function
Prostaglandin (PGF-2alpha)
tightens estrus
eCG (PMSG) injection is optional
enhancing prolificacy

18

female anatomy

cervical rings. ewe tortuous, doe aligned.

19

natural breeding

sheep need to be together for 27 days. goats for 32 days

20

AI methods

different amounts of sperm. vaginal the most, laparascpoic the least. 400 mil, cervial 200 mil lap 20 mil

21

indirect pregnancy diagnostics

no return to estrus or low p4 levels. doe is CL dependent, ewe has a luteo placental shift at 50 days

22

ultrasound

transrectal at 17-60 days. trasnabdominal at 26 days to term. can detect cotyledons after 30 days. most accurate and commonly used dx tool. difficult to count feti after 90 days. radioogy best after 90 days can count feti 50 days after AI. ballottement after 100 days

23

biomarkers

bioPRYN preg B specific protein >30 days, estrone sulfate, >50d, placental lactogene >60d`

24

ewe gestation length

148 days and CL dependent until 55-6d. then placenta. induce parturition by glucocorticoids- mimics natural effects of parturition. pgf2a wont be effective because of placental progestagens

25

doe gestation length

150 days and CL dependent whole time. induce parutrition by glucocorticoids of pgf2a. combination of both injections most effective

26

epididymitis

major cause of infertility in rams. ascending infections bacterial. less immune function in younger aimals. brucella in rams. dx by palpation and seeing WBC in semen/urine. cull. put abx in feed for lambs. reportable

27

balanoposthitis

pizzle rot.. sheep common. predisposed if castrated, high protein diet, high urea level, cornyebacterium. skin irritation, ulceration, necrosis. keep area clean, abx. low protein diet. remain sterile but with testosterone.

28

false pregnancy of goats

large amount of uterine fluid with a CL. hydrometra, mucumetra, cloudburst. persistent CL on ovary. no cyclic activity. bioPRYN test neg cuz no pregnancy. give pgf2a to kill CL and oxytocin to expel fluid.

29

pregnancy toxemia

negative energy balance from multiple feti present in pregnancy. decrease glucose utilization in brain (CNS signs). fat as energy source. Primary: unable to metabolize
enough nutrients
o Triplets, quadruplets, etc o Too thin or too fat
• Secondary: condition that reduces intake of nutrients
o Lameness o “Broken Mouth." ketonuria, acidosis, dehydration, liver failure. good feeding management and IV glucose. give steroids to speed maturation and then c section

30

vaginal prolapse

prepartum/late gestation. high estrogen. cull. retention device ewe saver, harness, buhner suture with umbilical tape or prolapse pin.

31

hypocalcemia

common late gestation, heavily lactating. give calcium borogluconate

32

ringwomb

cervix fails to dilate. leads to dystocia- c section, cull. hereditary

33

30-30-30

dystocia. wait 30 minutes, check doe and provide assisted delivery after 30 minutes, wait 30 minutes for net kid. meconium is bad.

34

dystocia

lateral flexion of head with carpal flexion of forelimb. posterior is okay. pull down at 45 degrees to follow natural path of birth canal. retained membrane at 12-18 hours. give pgf2a.

35

uterine prolapse

post partum. normally not recur.

36

infectious abortions

toxoplasma, enzootic, vibriosis, q fever, listeria, brucella, lepto, slamonella, neospora canis, blue tonue, border disease, cache valley disease, endotoxins

37

toxoplasmosis

cat contamination feces. no abortion if infected prior to breeding. white necrotic foci on cotyledon. no changes in intercotyledonary space.

38

Enzootic abortion of ewes

chlamydophila abortus. reportable. thickening or necrosis of cotyledon, intercotyledonary space. will not have white foci. aborted feti have congested livers with white necrotic feci. subq petecchiae. latent carries shed during estrus. ram can trasmit. cull. vx good

39

vibriosis

campylobacter. MOST COMMON CAUSE ABORTION SHEEP. rare in goats. fetal stomach contents. nectrotic liver lesion. abx. ewe become immune. vx good.

40

plant

veratrum californicum, locoweed, lupine, sudan plant. major birth defects