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gold standard to describe canine phase of estrus



bitch behavior

flags tail to right.


bitch cytology

used to determind her place in cycle. testing bioassay of estrogen presence.



progression of epithelial cell death from tissue thickening due to estrogen. look like corn-flake like, polygonal shaped. non cornified are circular, deeply stained nucleus.


estrus cytology

in estrus, superficial pyknotic cells and intermediate cells and anuclear squamous cornflakes. in diestrus, PMNs. not normal to see during estrus. PMNs clear out foreign material diestrus is abrupt change to non cornified material. high progesterone. time parturition now.



estimates l4 peak and time of ovulation. differs in other species becasue no p4 prior to ovulation.


bitch anatomy

abnormalities at junction of urethra and vagina like strictures or remnany hymens. pre-breeding exam done in estrus- on digital exam, feel crvix due to shape of tract. vaginoscopy will show pink, billowy cervix at proestrus and flat, loose crenated at estrus


p4 levels

2-2.9= LH peak
4-10 = ovulation
>10= already ovulated.
breed bitch at 4 and 6 days after LH peak.


2-2-2-2 rule

LH peak at 2-2.9 days. (day 0) ovulation 2 days later. breed two days later (day 4). breed another 2 days later


LH canine

LH peak. abrupt and short. assumed 24 hours, can be less. occasionally 48. ovulation 24-48h later. used daily for very precise timing of LH peak and ovulation. useful with frozen semen because short window of time. used with p4 testing


canine semen usages

fresh-immediately. cooled- 48hrs. frozen- long term, but decreased longevity


bitch wheelbarrow

normal quality fresh or cooled semen. lift bitch's hindlimbs to allow gravity to facilitate movement of semen down tract.


endoscopic transcervical insemination TCI

intrauterine deposition. small amount needed because of close proximity to fert site. good for fresh/cooled/frozen. surgical is controversial. norwegian catheter for TCI without endoscope


insemination dose

250 million PMMN. for vaginal AI. fresh or chilled. or 100 million PMMN for intrauterine AI. poor quality, frozen, lower doses


gestation length

65d from LH peak, 57d from cytological diestrus. could be up to 72 days from random breeding. body temperature likely fall to 99 day before parturition


bitch's exam

early- PE, vaginal cytology, digital exam, vaginoscopy, brucellosis screen, HWP, p4 measurements. every 2-3 days recheck p4 levels and cytology. not miss LH surge and estrus. p4 confirm ovulation. check cytology every day for diestrus


feline general

felines are induced ovulators. LH surge is stimulated by tom's penile spines. ovulation about 24-48 hours later.


feline mating

multiple mtings. 4/3, one mating every other hour. start 2 days after onset of estrus. estrus 8 days long. mating confirmed by queen's after reaction of aggessive rolling licks perineum.


queen behavior

– Multiple mating necessary for LH surge – Begin mating on estrus days 2 to 4 – Minimum 3 times daily – Four times in 2 h period, best ovulation – Queen’s after reaction • Vicious toward tom! & rolls, licks perineum


feline ovulation induction

hCG. give day or day of prior to copulation. can do vaginal, transcervical or surgical AI.


Canine BSE

history, diet, diseases, skin issues, medications. kennels, travel history, vaccines, brucella. heart worm. . estrus cycle history. estrus family history. was tie observed? male fertility? pregnancy history. pyometra? infections?


canine bse problems

pyometra likely to reoccur. raw food is bad for diet, hypothyroidism yields poor results. some transmissable veneral tumors from traveling


canine bitch reproductive exam

vulva (discharge? recessed? infantile?), vestibule, mammary glands, abdominal palpation. mammary glands susceptible to neoplasia. digital exam (vestible) most effective for diagnosing vaginal stricture. tissue bands (dystocia, mating problems, UTI), residual hymen, UTI.


vulvar discharge

Normal reproductive: reproductive cycle, parturition,
– Abnormal reproductive: pyometra, abortion, metritis,
hemorrhage, subinvolution of placental sites, estrogen
stimulation of various causes (follicular cysts, ovarian
remnant syndrome, iatrogenic)
– Miscellaneous: neoplasm, foreign body, urovagina,
uterine stump pathology, various urinary tract
pathologies, vaginitis with anatomic defects of vaginal
or vestibular vault, “puppy vaginitis”


canine infertility

results from overgrowth of normal microflora. normal= Staph, Strep, E.coli,
Pasteurella, mycoplasma, ureaplasma. pre-breed culture if infertile case


canine herpesvirus

mummified abortions, stillborns, premature delivery. very contagious. naive pregnant bitches at risk. kidney petecchia



always path, never normal. zoonotic. rarely affects adults. male- orchitis, epididymitis, infertility. scrotal edema, semen abnormal. females- abortions, EED, early embryonic death. lymphadenomegaly, discospondylitis, lameness, ocular lesions.


cycstic endometrial hyperplasia, CEH

caused by repeated estrus and diestrus. characteristic hyperplastic cysts. estrogen, then progesterone. more susceptible to pyometra and uterine thickening. endometrial cyst.


ovarian cysts

secretory functions, commonly estrogen (follicular) and progesterone (luteal). can be Granulosa cell tumor. prolonged estrus or anestrus. only need p4 secretions to keep bitch in diestrus.


ovarian cyst, luteal cyst

pgf2a. surgical


ovarian cyst, follicular

hCG/GnRH, surgical



myelosuppression, anemia, bone marrow suppression high estrogen release.


canine cycle abnormalities

split heat (follicular wave, atresia, new follicular wave), prolonged estrus or diestrus >8 weeks, short interestrous interval (4 months min) anestrus, silent heat.


intersex cocker spaniels

predisposed to intersex. xx- sex reversed male. male and female gonads. .


feline infertility

Estrous cycle issues
• Mating issues
• Infections
• Anatomical
• Chromosomal / Genetic
test has felv and fiv tests


cat estrus

can enter pregnant diestrus, pseudopregnant diestrus, and postestrus. go back and forth or enter anestrus. postestrus is low e2 levels between peaks correlated to estrus. e2 rises with corresponding follicular wave. seaosnally polyestrus, long day breeders. anestrus where not adequate light.



persistent anestrus from ovarian, photoperiod, behavior


ovarian anestrus

spay or luteal cyst that continiously secrets p4. gct rare in cats


gonad present

test for anti mullerian hormone AMH. glycoprotein in all mammals. ovarina granulosa cell secrete AMH. only in reproductive years. testicular sertoli releases AMH.


behavioral anestrus

silent heat, spontaneous ovulation, no mating needed. diestrus pseudopreg. housing influence by other dominant queens


persistent estrus

follicular cyst continuously secrets e2. failed pregnancy?


normal cat estrous

does or doesn't allow mating. if allow and not pregnant, could be tom infertility, failure to ovulate, anatomical defects


hormonal diagnostics for cats

p4 rises post ovulation and is required for successful pregnancy. lack of rise post breeding = no ovulation. bioassay for prescence of e2. diestrus is period of p4 dominance.