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Flashcards in bovine pregnancy problems therio Deck (17):
1

direct pregnancy detection methods

palpate membrane slip >30d. (chorioallantoic membrane (opposed to endometrium)). amniotic vesicle 35-65d. fetus >65d. placentomes (maternal caruncle +fetal cotyledon) 90d. ballottement of fetus per rectum/transabdominally. feel return impact. ultrasound.

2

indirect pregnancy detecton method

notice non return to estrus, physical changes, endocrine levels, palpations-- detect fluctuance or fremitus. detect IFN-tau genes from trophoblasts.

3

fluctuance

fluid in uterine lumen/palpation/indirect

4

fremitus

movement of fluid through an artery- middle uterine artery. detects asymmetry. differentiate uterine artery from internal iliac.. asymmetry can detect fluid in cases of pyometa, mucometra, hydrometra... first on pregnant horn then on entire uterus at 200d.

5

fluid detection

not until 30d. can detect embryo 35-65d. embryo becomes fetus at 40d after organogenesis. placentomes around 90d with fremitus at 100d.

6

aging fetuses

60d mouse
90d rat
120d small cat
150d large cat
180d beagle
210d german shepherd

7

ultrasound cows

Diagnose open cows earlier. Less traumatic less manipulation. Accurate recognition of ovarian structures (how accurate is palpation?)
Accurate detection of gestational problems. Accurate of fetal death. Fetal sex.
If male, genital tubercle is close to umbilicus (uc)
If female, gt is near hind legs. hl.
pyometra- gray contrast in uterine lumen. shouldnt be that gray.

8

aging embryonic vesicles

30- 8-10mm
40- 20-30mm
50- 35-50mm
60- 60-75mm

9

twins in cows

50% result in feal death. not as bad if pregnancies in two different horns

10

p4 levels in cows

low at AI and high if pregnant. in blood or milk. 99% effective in detecting open cows.

11

Pregnancy Specific Protein B and Pregnancy Associated Glycoprotein

trophoblast cells on day 21. indicate pregnancy at day 30. last in cows up to 70d post partum. long half life.

12

fetal mummification

dead fetus is preserved by cow. CA membrane remains on fetus and dessicates. is steril.e common death by a viral infection. CL is maintained in the cow, so fetus will remain in cow until intervention. surgery.

13

fetal maceration

bacterial infection, commonly Gram negative anaerobes, t. pyogenes. only remnant left is just bones. induce labor

14

fetal dropsy

hydrops allantois (apple shaped) vs. hydrops amnii (pear shaped) . inappropriate accumulation of fluid. allantois gives cow much larger appearance.

15

uterine torsion

uterus stays in place as cow rolls over. cuts off nutrient supply.

16

uterine prolapse

commonly results from hypocalcemia. flaccid uterus prolapses starting at apex, no sutures. vaginal prolapse requires suture to put vulva /vagina in place. must be removed before calving.

17

fetal anomalies

ascites from atresia coli, joint abnormalities, schistosomus refluxus (spine wall abnormal, viscera exposed.