Brain 1: Spinal cord physiology and brain development and coverings Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Brain 1: Spinal cord physiology and brain development and coverings Deck (35):
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2 main function of spinal cord

1. Propagates nerve impulses (in white matter)
2. Integrates information (in grey matter)

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2 main sensory tracts

Spinothalamic tract:
Posterior column:

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What does spinothalamic tract do

Conveys nerve impulses for sensing pain, temperature, itch, tickle and deep pressure

3

What is two tracts of posterior column?

Facilicus (leg) and Cunneate fascilicus (arm)

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What does posterior column do?

conveys nerve impulses for touch, light pressure, vibration and conscious proprioception

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What is conscious proprioception

The awareness of the positions and movements of muscles, tendons and joints

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what is 2 main motor tracts

Direct pathways (lateral corticospinal tract, anterior corticospinal tract, corticobulbar tract)
corti- cortex,
spinal -spinal, efferent, motor
bulbar - brainstem

Indirect pathways (rubrospinal, tectospinal, vestibulospinal, lateral reticulospinal, medial reticulospinal tracts)

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What is direct pathways of motor tracts

nerve impulses originate in cerebral cortex
cause voluntary movements of skeletal mm
brainstem is considered traveling down

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what do indirect pathways of motor tracts do

nerve impulses originate in brain stem
cause automatic movements
helps coordinate body movements with visual stimuli
maintain muscle tone

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what is reflex

a fast involuntary unplanned sequence of actions that occurs in response to a particular stimulus
can be in born or learned

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4 different reflexes

spinal reflex
cranial reflex
somatic reflex
automatic (visceral) reflexes

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spinal reflex is

when integration happens in gray matter in Spinal cord

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cranial reflex is

when integration happens in brainstem

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somatic reflex is

involves contraction of skeletal muscle

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autonomic (visceral) reflexes is

not usually consciously perceived
Invovled responses of smooth mm, cardiac mm and glands

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Four somatic spinal reflexes

1. The stretch reflex
2. Tendon reflex
3. Flexor (withdrawal reflex)
4. crossed extensor reflex

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Stretch reflex

Sensor receptor: muscle spindle
Mono synapse
Reciprocal innervation: yes
ipsilateral reflex
intersegmental: no

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Tendon reflex

Sensory receptor: G.T.O
Poly synapses
Reciprocal innervation: yes
Ipsilateral reflex
Intersegmental: No

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Flexor (withdrawal) reflex

Sensory receptor: n/a
Poly synapses
Reciprocal innervation: Yes
Ipsilateral reflex
intersegmental: Yes

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Cross extensor reflex

Sensory receptor: n/a
poly synapses
reciprocal innervation: yes
Intersegmental: yes

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what do brain and spinal cord develop from

ectoderm, arranged in a neural tube

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Three primary brain vesicles

Prosencephalon (forebrain)
Mesencephalon (midbrain)
Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
3-4 week embryo

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5 secondary brain vesicles

5 week embryo
Prosencephalon divides to Telencephalon and Dienephalon
Mesencephalon stays as Mesencephalon
Rhombencephalon divides to Metencephalon and Myelencephalon

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Adult brain structure (walls and Cavities)

5 week embryo
Telencephalon becomes wall: Cerebrum, Cavities: lateral ventricles
Diencephalon becomes wall: Thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus, Cavities: Third ventricle
Mesencephalon becomes wall: Midbrain, cavities: Aqueduct of the midbrain
Metencephalon becomes wall: pons and cerebellum, cavities: upper part of forth ventricle
Myelencephalon becomes wall: Medulla oblongata, cavities: lower part of forth ventricle

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what does brain stem have

Continuous with spinal cord
medulla oblongata
pons
midbrain

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Where is cerebellum located?

posterior to brain stem

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what and where is diencephalon

superior to brain stem
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
epithalamus

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Where and what is cerebrum

largest part of the brain
sits on diencephalon

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protective coverings of the brain

cranium and cranial meninges surround and protect the brain
cranial meninges - continuous with the spinal meninges (Dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater)

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What is missing from spinal cord structure

no epidural space around brain

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Dura mater of the brain

outer meningeal layer made up of periosteal layer (external) and meningeal layer (internal). These 2 layers are fused together except where they separate to enclose the dural venous sinuses

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what is Dural venous sinuse

Endothelial-lined venous channels
Drain blood from the brain and deliver it into internal jugular veins

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3 extensions of dura mater

1. Falx cerebri: separates the 2 hemispheres of the cerebrum
2. Falx cerebelli: separates the 2 hemisphere of cerebellum
3: Tentonium cerebelli: Separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum

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Blood flows to brain mainly via

internal carotid, vertebral arteries

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Blood flows out of brain via

the dural venous sinuses which drain into the internal jugular veins