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Flashcards in Cranial nerves 2 Deck (24):
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CNVIII

Vestibulocochlear Nerve
sensory nerve
2 branches
Vestibular branch (carries impulses for equilibrium) and cochlear branch (Carries impulse for hearing)

1

Vestibular branch route

Semicircular canals, the saccule + utricle of inner ear -> vestibular ganglion -> vestibular nuclei in pons + medulla

2

Cochlear branch

Spiral organ (organ of corti) -> spiral ganglion -> auditory meatus -> medulla -> thalamus (medial genuculate nuclei, inferior colliculus midbrain) -> primary auditory area (41, 42)

3

Injury to vestibular branch

Vertigo - a subjective feeling that one's own body or the environment is rotating
Ataxia - muscular incoordination
Nystagmus - involuntary rapid movement of the eyeball

4

Injury to cochlear branch

tinnitus - ringing in ears
Deafness

5

CN IX

Glossopharyngeal nerve
sensory, motor and autonomic

6

CN IX sensory

1. Taste buds on posterior 1/3 of tongue
2. Proprioceptors from some swallowing mm
3. baroreceptors in carotid sinus that monitor BP
4. Chemoreceptors
5. External ear to convey touch, pain, heat and cold
-> superior and inferior ganglia -> jugular foramen -> medulla

7

CN IX motor

nuclei in medulla ->jugular foramen -> stylopharyngeus mm

8

CN IX Autonomic

inferior salivary nucleus in medulla ->otic ganglion -> parotid gland (facial nerve goes through but Glossopharyngeal innervates it)

9

Injury to CN IX

Dysphagia -difficult to swallow
Aptyalia - no saliva
Loss of sensation in throat
Ageusia - no taste
Glossopharyngeal neuralgia - posterior pharynx, tonsils, back of tongue, middle ear, can be triggered by chewing, swallowing, talking, sneezing, touching the tonsils an applicator

10

CN X

Vagus nerve
Autonomic
Motor and sensory

11

CN X sensory

Skin of external ear
a few taste buds in epiglottis and pharynx
proprioceptors in mm of neck and throat
baroreceptors and chemoreceptors
mainly from visceral sensory receptors in most organs of Thoracic and abdominal cavities that convey sensations (ie hunger, fullness, discomfort)
-> superior + inferior ganglia -> jugular foramen ->medulla

12

CNX motor

axons from medulla to jugular foremen -> pharynx, larynx, soft palate (swallowing, vocalization, coughing)

13

CNX autonomic

axons of autonomic motor neurons start in medulla and supply the lung, heart (cardiac), glands of the GI tract, smooth mm of respiratory passageways, esophagus, stomach, gallbladder, small intestine, most of large intestine

14

injury to CNX

vagal paralysis
dysphagia
tachycardia

15

CN XI

accessory nerve
motor nerve

16

CNXI motor

motor axons from anterior grey horn of first 5 segments of c/spine (C1-C5) -> Ascend through foramen magnum -> exit through jugular foramen -> SCM + trapezium

17

CN XI injury

Paralysis to SCM + Trapezius

18

CNXII

Hypoglossal nerve (motor)

19

CN XII motor

hypoglossal nucleus ->hypoglossal canal -> mm of tongue

20

Injury to CN XII

difficulty chewing
dysarthria (slur speech)
dysphagia (swallow)
the tongue, when protruded, curls toward the affected side and that side atrophies

21

Development of the nervous system

-begins in the 3rd week of gestation
-starts with a thickening of the ectoderm called the neural plate
-neural plate folds inward + forms a longitudinal groove, called the neural groove
-raised edges of neural plate are called neural folds
-as the whole thing grows it forms a tube (neural tube)

22

layers of walls of neural tube

- outer/marginal layer cells = white matter of nervous system
- middle/mantle layer cells = gray matter
- inner/ependymal layer cells = lining of central canal (spinal cord) and ventricles of brain

23

what is the mass of tissue between the neural tube and skin ectoderm?

Neural crest becomes posterior (dorsal) root ganglia of spinal nerves
-spinal nerves
-ganglia of cranial nerves
-cranial nerves
-ganglia of autonomic nervous system
-adrenal medulla
-meninges