The brain stem contains the ______________ and the ____________.
(Hindbrain) The __________ influences the inflow of information between the spinal cord and the brain. It coordinates swallowing, coughing, and sneezing, and regulates a number of vital functions including breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. Damage to this structure is often fatal.
(Hindbrain) The ___________ connects the two halves of the cerebellum and plays a role in the integration of movements in the right and left sides of the body.
(Hindbrain) The ________________ is important for balance and posture, and, in conjunction with the basal ganglia and motor cortex, is vital to the performance of coordinated and refined motor movements. It plays a critical role in the timing and coordination of those acts and the correction of errors while performing those acts. It has also been implicated in sensorimotor learning and some aspects of cognitive functioning (e.g., the ability shift attention from one stimulus to another). Abnormalities have been linked to autism, schizophrenia, and ADHD.
Damage to the cerebellum can produce _____________, a condition involving slurred speech, severe tremors, and a loss of balance. The similarity of these symptoms to behaviors produced by alcohol intoxication is due to the fact that alcohol exerts a strong effect on the cerebellum.
(Midbrain) The __________________ serves as a route for visual information.
(Midbrain) The __________________ serves as a route for auditory information.
(Midbrain) The __________________ is involved in motor activity and plays a role in the brain's reward system.
(Midbrain) The __________________ extends from the spinal cord through the hindbrain and midbrain into the hypothalamus in the forebrain. It consists of over 90 nuclei (homogenously grouped neurons) that are involved in various functions including respiration, coughing, vomiting, posture, locomotion, and REM sleep.
(Midbrain) The ______________________ is part of the reticular formation and is vital to consciousness, arousal, and wakefulness. It screens sensory input, especially during sleep, and arouses higher centers in the brain when important information must be processed.
Reticular activating system (RAS).
(Midbrain) Damage to the _________________ disrupts the sleep-wak cycle and can prduce a permanent coma-like state of sleep.
The subcortical structures of the forebrain include the: (4)
- Basal ganglia
- Limbic system
(Forebrain - subcortical) ____________________ is involved in motor activity, language, and memory, and it acts as a "relay station" and transmits incoming sensory information to the appropriate areas of the cortex for all of the senses except olfaction.
__________________________ is due to a thiamine deficiency that causes atrophy of neurons in certain areas of the thalamus and is usually the result of chronic alcoholism. This disorder begins with ______________________, which is characterized by mental confusion, abnormal eye movements, and ataxia. It is then followed by _________________, which involves severe anterograde amnesia, retrograde amnesia, and confabulation.
- Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
- Wernicke's encephalopathy
- Korsakoff's syndrome
(Forebrain - subcortical) The __________________ is involved in a variety of vital functions including hunger, thirst, sex, sleep, body temperature, movement, and emotional reactions. With regard to emotions, the results of damage to this structure depend on its location but may involve uncontrollable laughter or intense rage and aggression. This structure also monitors the body's internal states and initiates the responses needed to maintain homeostasis through its influence on the ANS and the pituitary and other endocrine glands.
(Forebrain - subcortical) The _____________________ is located in the hypothalamus and mediates the sleep-wake cycle and other circadian rhythms, and ther is evidence that this structure is involved in seasonal affective disorder.
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN).
(Forebrain - subcortical) The hypothalamus also contains the __________________, which are involved in learning and memory.
(Forebrain - subcortical) The ___________________ consists of three forebrain structures - the caudate nucleus, putamen, clobus pallidus - and the substantia nigra, which is located in the midbrain. They are involved in planning, organizing, and coordinating voluntary movement and regulating the amplitude and direction of motor actions. They also play a role in sensorimotor learning and in stereotyped, species-specific motoric expressions of emotional states such as smiling, frowning, and running when afraid.
Several disorders involving prominent ______________ are associated with basal ganglia pathology, including Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, Tourette's Disorder, OCD and ADHD.
Problems related to the behavioral inhibition that characterize ____________ have been linked to a smaller-than-normal caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and prefrontal cortex.
Areas of the basal ganglia have also been implicated in:
- Obsessive-compulsive symptoms
(Forebrain - subcortical) The __________________ is involved in memory and other cognitive functions but is primarily associated with the mediation of emotion. It consists of several structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, and cingulate cortex.
(Forebrain - subcortical) The _________________ integrates, coordinates, and directs motivational and emotional activities, attaches emotions to memories, and is involved in the recall of emotionally-charged experiences.
The impact of the amygdala on emotional responses and other behaviors was demonstrated by Kluver and Bucy (1938) who found that bilateral lesions in the amygdala and temporal lobes of primates substantially _____________ fear and aggression, and ____________ docility and compulsive oral exploratory behaviors, alter dietary havits, and produce hypersexuality and "_______________" (the inability to recognize the significance or meaning of events). This pattern of behavior is referred to as ____________________.
- Psychic blindness
- Kluver-Bucy syndrome
(Forebrain - subcortical) The _________________ is less directly implicated in emotions than other limbic system structures and is associated more with learning and memory. Specifically, it is involved in processing spatial, visual, and verbal information and consolidating declarative memories, which means that it is involved in converting short-term declarative memories to long-term memories.
Bilateral removal of the ___________________ (which include the ________________) as a treatment for severe epilepsy causes anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia for events occurring up to three years prior to the surgery.
- Medial temporal lobes
There is also evidence that the hippocampus and other medial temporal lobe structures are essential for the formation of ______________.
(Forebrain - subcortical) The _________________ surrounds the corpus callosum and is involved in attention, emotion, and the perception and subjective experience of pain. With regard to the latter, the ______________________ is involved in the transmission of pain signals and plays an important role in the emotional response to painful stimuli.
- Cingulate cortex
- Anterior cingulate cortex
In humans, the cerebral cortex makes up more than ___% of the brain's total weight and is responsible for the regulation of a broad range of cognitive, emotional, and motor functions.
The right and left hemispheres of the cerebral cortex are connected by several bundles of fibers, the largest of which is the _________________. This allows information sent directly to one hemisphere to be available to the other hemisphere and, if it is severed, the two hemispheres operate as separate, independent brains.