Sexual Development and Behavior and Sleep and Dreaming Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Sexual Development and Behavior and Sleep and Dreaming Deck (15)
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In humans, differentiation of the gonads into male testes or female ovaries begins approximately ___ to ___ weeks after conception.

6 to 8 weeks.


For a genetic male fetus to develop male genitalia, the fetus must be stimulated by the androgen during the critical period of development which, in humans, appears to be during the ________________.

Second trimester.


If there is a hormonal mishap so that a genetic female is exposed to early androgen, she will exhibit _______________________, which is characterized by male reproductive organs and "tomboyish" behaviors (without an increased tendency for homosexuality).

Adrenogenital Syndrome.


Studies using structural brain imaging techniques have found sex-related differences in the size of certain regions of the brain including the _______________, hippocampus, and _________.  This is an example of ___________________.

  • Corpus callosum
  • SCN
  • Sexual dimorphism


The _______________________ controls the emergence of secondary sex characteristics and other changes at puberty, via release of chemicals by the hypothalamus which in turn stimulate the anterior pitutiary gland, which then release the gonadotropic hormones that stimulate testosterone and sperm production by the testes or ovulation and estrogen production in the ovaries.

Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.


Sleep is divided into ___ stages on the basis of EEG (electroencephalogram) pattern, which reveals four distinct wave patterns that are characteristic of different awake and sleep states.



_________ Waves: Alert, fully awake state.



___________ Waves: Awake, rested, relaxed state.



__________ Waves: Deep relaxation, light sleep.



____________ Waves: Deep sleep.



Sleep stages 1 through 4 are collectively referred to as _____________ sleep.

Non-REM (NREM) sleep.


Immediately before sleep, the person is in a state of drowsiness predominated by __________ waves.  As the transition to Stage 1 sleep begins, these waves are replaced by __________ waves, which are greater in amplitude and slower in frequency.  During Stage 2 sleep, these waves predominate but are interrupted by bursts of sleep spindles (rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity) and K complexes (a large negative wave followed by a smaller positive one).  Large, slow __________ waves appear during Stage 3, and in Stage 4 (the "deep sleep" stage), these waves dominate.

  • Alpha
  • Theta
  • Delta


Stages 3 and 4 are also referred to as "________________."

Slow-wave sleep.


The fifth sleep stage - _____________ sleep - is characterized by the most vivid and elaborate dreams of any of the sleep stages.  This stage of sleep is also referred to as active or _______________ sleep.

  • REM
  • Paradoxical


REM sleep ______________ over time.