The six basic emotions associated with with the same facial expressions in a variety of cultures and also believed to be innate and universal are:
The ____________________ Theory stresses the importance of peripheral factors and proposes that emotions represent percepitons of bodily reactions to sensory stimuli (i.e., "you are afraid because your knees are shaking and your heart is pounding"). Support for this theory comes from studies of quadriplegics and paraplegics who receive limited neural information from their bodies and often report feeling less intense emotions after their injuries.
____________________ Theory places greater emphasis on the brain mechanisms that mediate emotion. It proposes that emotional and bodliy reactions to stimuli occur simultaneously as a result of thalamic stimulation of the cortex and the peripheral nervous system. This theory is supported by research showing that bodily reactions are fairly similar for all emotions, which suggests that the nature of emotional experience does not just reflect differences in bodily arousal.
Schacter and Singer's __________________ Theory (1962) describes subjective emotional experience as the consequence of a combination of physiological arousal and cognitive interpretation of that arousal and the environmental context in which it occurs. In their famous "epinephrine study" research participants interpreted their unexplained arousal in terms of the behavior exhibited by a confederate who waited with them for an experiment to begin.
Lazarus' (1991) ____________________ Theory attempts to reconcile physiological universals with individual differences by proposing that emotions are universal but that there are differences in how emotion-arousing events are interpreted or appraised. It predicts that "if a person appraises his or her relationship to the environment in a particular way, then a specific emotion which is tied to the appraisal pattern always follows."
Lazarus' theory distinguishes between ___ types of cognitive appraisal.
______________________ refers to a person's evaluation of a situation as irrelevant, positive-benign, or stressful with regard to his or her own well-being.
_________________ refers to the person's evaluation of the resources he or she has to cope with a situation that has been identified as stressful (e.g., social support, material resources, level of energy).
__________________ occurs when the person monitors the situation and, as necessary, modifies his or her primary and/or secondary appraisals.
__________________ included the hippocampus, mammillary bodies, anterior nuclei of the thalamus, and cingulate gyrus, and was proposed as a neural circuit that mediates the experience and expression of emotion. Subsequent research extended this circuit to include certain parts of the cerebral cortex, amygdala, and the hypothalamus.
Through its influence on the ANS and pituitary gland, the _______________ is involved in the translation of emotions into physical responses (e.g., physical signs of fear and excitement).
Selye (1956) concluded that people respond to all types of stressful situations in the same manner. He named this response the _________________________, which is mediated primarily by the adrenal and pituitary glands and involves 3 stages.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS).
___________________: in response to stress, the hypothalamus activates the adrenal medulla to increase its release of epinephrine (adrenaline). As a result, the body's glucose level rises and heart and respiration rates accelerate, thereby increasing the body's energy level.
__________________: If the stress persists, breathing and heart rates return to normal levels, but the hypothalamus signals the pituitary gland to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). ACTH then activates the adrenal cortex to release the stress hormone cortisol, which maintains high blood glucose levels and increase the metabolism of fats and proteins.
__________________: With prolonged stress, the pituitary gland and adrenal cortex lose their ability to maintain elevated hormone levels, and physiological processes begin to break down. Fatigue, depression and illness, or - in extreme cases - death, may occur.
Corticosteroids (cortisol and other stress hormones) compromise the immune system by decreasing the production of ________________ (especially T cells) and antibodies, which are the body's major defenses against viruses, bacteria, and other antigens.
_____________________: People exhibiting this pattern are highly competitive and achievement-oriented, have a sense of time urgency, and tend to be hostile, easily irritated, and impatient. Studies have confirmed that cynical or antagonistic hostility is most strongly associated with health problems, especially coronary heart disease in males.
Type A Behavior Pattern.