Neurological, Psychophysiological, and Endocrine Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neurological, Psychophysiological, and Endocrine Disorders Deck (52)
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1

A _____________________ injury usually causes an alteration of consciousness and some degree of anterograde and retrograde amnesia.

Closed-head injury.

2

A ___________________ does not usually cause LOC and produces more localized damage and more highly specific symptoms.

Closed-head injury.

3

The severity of TBI is determined by considering several factors, including:

  • A person's initial score on the _________________________ (GCS)
  • Duration of ______________________ (PTA)
  • Duration of ______________________ (LOC)

  • Glasgow Coma Scale
  • Posttraumatic Amnesia
  • Loss of Consciousness

4

Classification of TBI Severity - ___________________:

  • Initial GCS: 13-15
  • PTA: Less than 1 hour
  • LOC: Less than 30 min.

Mild.

5

Classification of TBI Severity - ___________________:

  • Initial GCS: 9-12
  • PTA: 1-24 hours
  • LOC: 30 min. to 24 hours

Moderate.

6

Classification of TBI Severity - ___________________:

  • Initial GCS: 8 or less
  • PTA: More than 24 hours
  • LOC: More than 24 hours

Severe.

7

_______________________ following a TBI is often defined in terms of six levels: Conscious, confused, delirious, obtunded, stuporous, and comatose.

Alteration of consciousness.

8

With disorientation following TBI, in what order does recovery occur?

  • Place
  • Person
  • Time

  1. Person
  2. Place
  3. Time

9

With retrograde amnesia, recent memories are affected more than remote, and recovery usually involves the return of _______________ memories first.

Remote.

10

Research on recovery from TBI has linked it to a number of factors (e.g., age, gender, SES), including the presence of ________________ on the ______________________ gene.  The greatest recovery typically occurs during the first ___ months, with considerable additional recovery through the first year.

  • Allele e4
  • Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)
  • 3

11

___________________________ refers to a pattern of somatic and psychological symptoms that occur in up to 50% or more of individuals who have experienced a mild brain injury.  Common initial symptoms of PCS are headache, dizziness, nausea, blurred vision, and drowsiness.  Subsequent symptoms include insomnia and fatigue, tinnitus, cognitive impairment, and irritability, depression, or anxiety.  The majority recover within one to three months.

Postconcussional Syndrome.

12

There are three major causes of a CVA (stroke): __________________ (blockage of an artery by a blood clot), ______________ (sudden blockage of an artery by material from another part of the bloodstream), and hemorrhage.

  • Thrombosis
  • Embolism

13

The major risk factors for stroke are _______________________ and _________________________ (thickening of the lining of the arterial walls); other factors that increase that risk include atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, and increasing age.

  • Hypertension
  • Atherosclerosis

14

Different symptoms are associated with stroke involving the middle, anterior, or posterior _________________, but common symptoms include contralateral hemiplegia, contralateral hemianesthesia involving face, arm, and leg, and contralateral visual field loss (homonymous hemianopia).  

Cerebral artery.

15

_________________ hemisphere damage may produce aphasia and ideomotor apraxia; ___________________ hemisphere damage may cause contralateral neglect and dressing apraxia.

  • Dominant (L) hemisphere
  • Non-dominant (R) hemisphere

16

Stroke Symptoms - _________________ Cerebral Artery:

Contralateral hemiplegia and hemianesthesia, contralateral homonymous hemianopia, dysarthia, aphasia (dominant hemisphere affected), apraxia and sensory neglect (non-dominant hemisphere affected).

Middle.

17

Stroke Symptoms - _________________ Cerebral Artery:

Contralateral homonymous hemianopia, memory loss, unilateral cortical blindness, visual agnosia.

Posterior.

18

Stroke Symptoms - _________________ Cerebral Artery:

Contralateral hemiplegia, gait apraxia, apathy, depression, confusion, impaired judgment and insight, bowel and bladder incontinence, mutism.

Anterior.

19

______________________, an autosomal dominant gene-linked degenerative disease, has been linked to a loss of GABA-secreting neurons and glutamate excitotoxicity in the basal ganglia, especailly in thecaudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus.

Huntington's Disease.

20

____________________ is due to a progressive degeneration of dopamine-containing cells in the substantia nigra, which affects other areas of the brain that connect with these cells, including certain areas in the thalamus and frontal lobes.

Parkinson's Disease.

21

_____________ symptoms of Parkinson's Disease include tremor at rest (e.g., pill-rolling" between the thumb and forefinger), muscle rigidity, akathisia ("cruel restlessness").  _____________ symptoms include postural disturbances, speech difficulties, bradykinesia (slowed movement), and akinesia (a reduction or absence of spontaneous movement).

  • Positive
  • Negative

22

A __________________ is due to abnormal electrical activity in the brain that causes one or more of the following symptoms:

a) An aura that signals the onset of the seizure (e.g., a feeling, odor, or noise)

b) A LOC

c) Some type of abnormal movement

Seizure.

23

_________________ seizures are bilaterally symmetrical and do not have a focal onset.

Generalized.

24

Generalized Seizures: ___________________ include a tonic stage in which the muscles contract and the body stiffens, a clonic stage that involves rhythmic shaking of the limbs, and postictal (postseizure) depression or confusion with amnesia for the ictal event.

Tonic-clonic (grand mal).

25

Generalized Seizures: ___________________ are brief attacks involving a loss of consciousness without prominent motor symptoms.  The person often exhibits a "blank stare" with frequent eye blinking.  There is some evidence that the thalamus plays a role in the generation of these.

Absence (petit mal).

26

________________ seizures begin on one side of the brain and affect one side of the body initially, although they sometimes spread and become generalized seizures.

Partial.

27

_____________ partial seizures do not involve a LOC, while ____________ partial seizures entail some alteration in consciousness.  

  • Simple
  • Complex

28

_______________________ is the most common cause of partial seizures.

Temporal lobe epilepsy.

29

Seizure Symptoms - __________________ Lobe:

  • Automatisms (e.g., lip smacking, chewing, stereotyped swimming movements)
  • Hallucinations
  • Sudden feeling of fear, happiness, sadness or other alteration in emotion
  • Sense of deja vu or jamais vu (feeling of unfamiliarity with an object or place)
  • Changes in personality
  • Alteration in sexual behavior
  • Autonomic signs (flushed face, pupillary dilation, changes in heart and breathing rates)

Temporal.

30

Seizure Symptoms - __________________ Lobe: 

  • Motor symptoms (e.g., jerky movements in the arm or leg on the opposite side of the body)
  • "Speech arrest" (inability to talk) or other speech disturbance
  • Olfactory hallucinations or illusions
  • Autonomic symptoms

Frontal.