Brain and Blood Supply Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Final > Brain and Blood Supply > Flashcards

Flashcards in Brain and Blood Supply Deck (49):
1

What structures are part of the forebrain?

  • Cerebrum (cerebral cortex; white matter; basal nuclei)
  • Diencephalon (thalamus; hypothalamus; epithalamus)

2

What structures are part of the midbrain

 

Mesencephalon 

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3

What structures are part of the hindbrain?

  • Pons; cerebellum; Medulla Oblongata

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4

What structures are in the brainstem? What is the importance of the brainstem?

  • Mesencephalon (midbrain)
  • Pons (hindbrain)
  • Medulla Oblangata (hindbrain)

*important passageway between cerebrum and both cerebellum and body; contains nuclei of many cranial nerves 

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5

Pons and Medulla Oblongata contain autonomic centers related to 

Blood pressure; HR; breathing 

6

Identify the whole orange structure? What are the arrows pointing to?

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Medulla Oblongata

  • Pyramids 

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7

Identify "A"

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pons

8

Where does the crossing over of axons occur in order for the right side of the brain to control the left side of the body 

Decussation of pyramids in medulla oblongata 

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9

Identify the structure in the area of the star and what the star is pointing to 

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  • Cerebellum
  • arbor vitae (white matter)

* also surrounding the cerebellum is cerebellar cortex (gray matter) 

10

What is the function of the cerebellum

"fine-tunes" motor movements initiated in the cerebrum 

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11

In the cerebral cortex, what are the folds called? What are the grooves called?

  • Folds: Gyri
  • Grooves: Sulci 

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12

Identify 

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Longitudinal fissure: splits brain into left and right hemispheres 

13

Identify 

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Central sulcus 

14

Identify the sulcus this artery is running in

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Lateral sulcus (Sylvian fissure) 

15

Identify the turquoise line

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Transverse sulcus 

16

What is the corpus callosum

tract of white matter connecting the left and left hemispheres; facilitates interhemispheric communication 

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17

Identify 

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insula 

18

Name the four cerebral lobes (not including insula)

  • frontal lobe
  • parietal lobe
  • occipital lobe
  • temoral lobe

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19

Identify. What is it's function 

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  • Postcentral gyrus
  • primary somatosensory cortex 

20

Identify; What is it's function 

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  • Precentral gyrus
  • primary motor cortex 

21

Identify. Where does this structure come from embryologically?

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  • Thalamus
  • Diencephalon (Forebrain) 

22

Function of thalamus

relays sensory signals to cerebral cortex 

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23

What is the function of the hypothalamus? Where does it come from embryologically?

  • control center for autonomic nervous system
  • Diencephalon (forebrain) 

24

The dura matter is composed of what two layers?

  • Periosteal layer (more superficial) 
  • Meningeal layer

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25

Where is the subarachnoid space? What runs in it?

  • Between arachnoid and pia matter
  • CSF, blood vessels 

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26

The middle meningeal artery and vein run under what portion of the skull? Why is this a problem?

  • Pterion
  • Weakened part of skull; damage to area can damage these blood vessels and cause hematoma 

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27

External (epidural) hematoma

arterial blood pools between skull and periostal layer of dura

  • 75% in temporoparietal regions from damage to pterion region 

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28

Dural border hematoma (commonly referred to subdural) 

- blood (usually venous) forces open a space within dural border cell layer

(dural border cells run between meningeal dura and arrachnoid mater

- can cross sutures 

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29

Meningeal folds.  What are they? Where are they?

folds of meningeal dura follow some fissures/sulci of the brain

  • between cerebral hemispheres (longitudinal fissure)
  • Between cerebrum and cerebellum 

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30

Falx cerebri

meningeal fold between cerebral hemispheres 

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31

Tentorium Cerebelli 

meningeal fold between cerebrum and cerebellum 

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32

Where does the falx cerebri attach to in the skull?

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crista galli of ethmoid bone 

33

There is a hole in the tentorium cerebelli that allows for the passage of the brain stem.  What is this hole called?

Tentorial notch 

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34

dural venous sinuses

venous channels that form between layers of dura matter 

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35

What venous sinuses run superior and inferior to the falx cerebri?

Superior and inferior sagital sinus 

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36

Flow of dural venous sinus 

All enter sigmoid sinus and drain into internal jugular vein 

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37

Draw out dural venous sinus 

38

Identify 

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Groove for sigmoid sinus 

39

Identify 

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Groove for Transverse Sinus 

40

identify #3

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Groove for superior sagittal sinus

41

Cerebrospinal fluid is produced via what

choroid plexus 

42

What is the ventricular system?

  • cavities within brain
  • Produce and distribure CSF

43

Identify arrow

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interventricular foramen 

44

Identify all numbers of the ventricular system

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  1. fourth ventricle
  2. lateral ventricles
  3. third ventricle
  4. cerebral aqueduct
  5. central canal 

45

Flow of CSF circulation

  1. lateral ventricles to
  2. 3rd ventricle to 
  3. 4th ventricle to
  4. subarachnoid space and
  5. central canal of spinal cord

46

What happens to excess CSF that does not drain into the subarachnoid space the central canal of spinal cord?

excess CSF is drained into dural venous sinuses via arachniod villa 

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47

Arterial supply to the brain is from what 2 major arteries

  • internal carotid a.
  • vertrebral a.

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48

Cerebral arterial circle (circle of willis)

  • Anastomosis between branches of left and right ICA and Basilar a. (from vertebral artery)
  • May provide sufficient collateral blood supply to brain if blockage occurs 

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49

Identify the arteries supplying these regions of cortex 

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Blue: anterior cerebral artery 

Yellow: Middle cerebral artery

Red: Posterior cerebral artery