What structures are part of the forebrain?
- Cerebrum (cerebral cortex; white matter; basal nuclei)
- Diencephalon (thalamus; hypothalamus; epithalamus)
What structures are part of the midbrain
What structures are part of the hindbrain?
- Pons; cerebellum; Medulla Oblongata
What structures are in the brainstem? What is the importance of the brainstem?
- Mesencephalon (midbrain)
- Pons (hindbrain)
- Medulla Oblangata (hindbrain)
*important passageway between cerebrum and both cerebellum and body; contains nuclei of many cranial nerves
Pons and Medulla Oblongata contain autonomic centers related to
Blood pressure; HR; breathing
Identify the whole orange structure? What are the arrows pointing to?
Where does the crossing over of axons occur in order for the right side of the brain to control the left side of the body
Decussation of pyramids in medulla oblongata
Identify the structure in the area of the star and what the star is pointing to
- arbor vitae (white matter)
* also surrounding the cerebellum is cerebellar cortex (gray matter)
What is the function of the cerebellum
"fine-tunes" motor movements initiated in the cerebrum
In the cerebral cortex, what are the folds called? What are the grooves called?
- Folds: Gyri
- Grooves: Sulci
Longitudinal fissure: splits brain into left and right hemispheres
Identify the sulcus this artery is running in
Lateral sulcus (Sylvian fissure)
Identify the turquoise line
What is the corpus callosum
tract of white matter connecting the left and left hemispheres; facilitates interhemispheric communication
Name the four cerebral lobes (not including insula)
- frontal lobe
- parietal lobe
- occipital lobe
- temoral lobe
Identify. What is it's function
- Postcentral gyrus
- primary somatosensory cortex
Identify; What is it's function
- Precentral gyrus
- primary motor cortex
Identify. Where does this structure come from embryologically?
- Diencephalon (Forebrain)
Function of thalamus
relays sensory signals to cerebral cortex
What is the function of the hypothalamus? Where does it come from embryologically?
- control center for autonomic nervous system
- Diencephalon (forebrain)
The dura matter is composed of what two layers?
- Periosteal layer (more superficial)
- Meningeal layer
Where is the subarachnoid space? What runs in it?
- Between arachnoid and pia matter
- CSF, blood vessels
The middle meningeal artery and vein run under what portion of the skull? Why is this a problem?
- Weakened part of skull; damage to area can damage these blood vessels and cause hematoma
External (epidural) hematoma
arterial blood pools between skull and periostal layer of dura
- 75% in temporoparietal regions from damage to pterion region
Dural border hematoma (commonly referred to subdural)
- blood (usually venous) forces open a space within dural border cell layer
(dural border cells run between meningeal dura and arrachnoid mater
- can cross sutures
Meningeal folds. What are they? Where are they?
folds of meningeal dura follow some fissures/sulci of the brain
- between cerebral hemispheres (longitudinal fissure)
- Between cerebrum and cerebellum
meningeal fold between cerebral hemispheres
meningeal fold between cerebrum and cerebellum
Where does the falx cerebri attach to in the skull?
crista galli of ethmoid bone
There is a hole in the tentorium cerebelli that allows for the passage of the brain stem. What is this hole called?
dural venous sinuses
venous channels that form between layers of dura matter
What venous sinuses run superior and inferior to the falx cerebri?
Superior and inferior sagital sinus
Flow of dural venous sinus
All enter sigmoid sinus and drain into internal jugular vein
Draw out dural venous sinus
Groove for sigmoid sinus
Groove for Transverse Sinus
Groove for superior sagittal sinus
Cerebrospinal fluid is produced via what
What is the ventricular system?
- cavities within brain
- Produce and distribure CSF
Identify all numbers of the ventricular system
- fourth ventricle
- lateral ventricles
- third ventricle
- cerebral aqueduct
- central canal
Flow of CSF circulation
- lateral ventricles to
- 3rd ventricle to
- 4th ventricle to
- subarachnoid space and
- central canal of spinal cord
What happens to excess CSF that does not drain into the subarachnoid space the central canal of spinal cord?
excess CSF is drained into dural venous sinuses via arachniod villa
Arterial supply to the brain is from what 2 major arteries
- internal carotid a.
- vertrebral a.
Cerebral arterial circle (circle of willis)
- Anastomosis between branches of left and right ICA and Basilar a. (from vertebral artery)
- May provide sufficient collateral blood supply to brain if blockage occurs
Identify the arteries supplying these regions of cortex
Blue: anterior cerebral artery
Yellow: Middle cerebral artery
Red: Posterior cerebral artery