superior orbital fissure
identify green and red
green: foramen rotundum
red: pterygoid canal
orbital surface of greater wing
- circle: perpendicular plate
- arrow: horizontal plate
The pterygopalatine fossa communicates laterally with what?
Pterygomaxillary fissure (infratemporal fossa)
pterygopalatine fossa communicates posteriorly with what two things?
- foramen rotundum
- pterygoid canal
pterygopalatine fossa communicates medially with what
sphenopalatine foramen -> nasal cavity
pterygopalatine fossa communicates superiorly with what?
inferior orbital fissure-> orbit
Pterygopalatine fossa communicates inferiorly with what?
palatine canal -> palate/oral cavity
What nerve runs through the pterygopalatine fossa? What are its two main branches
- maxillary nerve
- zygomatic and infraorbital
What ganglion comes off of the maxillary nerve (CN V2)
What nerves come off of the pterygopalatine ganglion? What are their destination?
- greater and lesser palatine nerves -> palatine canal
- Nasopalatine nerve -> spehnopalatine foramen
- posterior lateral nasal nerves -> sphenopalatin foramen
Do greater and lesser palatine nerves synapse at pterygopalatine ganglion?
No, they pass through and pick up hitchhikers from the ganglion and exit via the palatine canal
The nerve of the pterygoid canal is formed from what two nerves?
- greater petrosal nerve
- deep petrosal nerve
What is the greater petrosal nerve
nerve from facial n. (CN VII) carrying preganglionic, parasympathetic
What is the deep petrosal nerve?
Nerve from the internal carotid plexus off of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion carrying postganglionic sympathetic innervation
Where does the nerve of the pterygoid run through to get to the pterygopalatine ganglion?
Which nerves of the nerve to pterygoid canal synpase in the pterygopalatine ganglion?
- only parasympathetics: from greater petrosal n.
What arteries run through the pterygopalatine fossa
deep branches of maxillary artery
The descending palatine artery off of the maxillary artery parallels what nerves?
greater and lesser palatine nerves -> travel through palatine canal
The sphenopalatine artery off of the maxillary artery parallels which nerve branch?
nasopalatine nerve -> travels through sphenopalatine foramen
What two maxillary arteries parallel the posterior lateral nasal and infraorbital nerves respectively?
posterior lateral nasal artery -> travels to sphenopalatine foramen
infraorbital artery -> travels to inferior orbital fissure
inferior nasal concha
nasal septum is formed from what?
- perpendicular plate of ethmoid
Name the nasal cartilages
identify black, green, and yellow
- black: inferior meatus
- green: middle meatus
- yellow: superior meatus
- opening of sphenoid sinus
" a" and "b"
- a: superior concha of ethmoid
- b: middle concha of ethmoid
Name the 4 paranasal sinuses. Which one contains multiple hollow air cells
- ethmoid: has hollow air cells
The hiatus semilunaris connects what two openings
- frontonasal duct: opening to frontal sinus
- opening of the maxillary sinus
The sphenoethmoid recess opens into what?
Ethmoid air cells open into the nasal cavity via what
numerous miniscule holes
Infectious material is easily trapped in which sinus due the location of its sinus opening
The Choana of the nasal cavity separates what?
- nasal vestibule: outside world
What vessels in the nasal cavity are from the internal carotid system
ethmoidal branches of the ophthalmic artery
what artery off of the facial artery supplies the nose
lateral nasal branch off angular artery
What branches off of the external carotid artery supply the nose
- lateral nasal a.: from facial
- sphenopalatine a.: from maxillary a.
- posterior lateral nasal a.: from maxillary a.
Sphenopalatime artery (off maxillary a.) creates an anastamosis with which arteries
- greater palatine artery off of the descending palatine a from the maxillary a.
- ethmoidal branches of the ophthalmic a.
What is kiesselbach's area
highly vascularized area of anastomosis
- site of many profuse nasal bleeding
What 3 cranial nerves are in the nasal cavity. What type of innervation do they bring
- CN I (special sensory)
- CN V1 (somatic sensory)
- CN V2 (somatic sensory)
olfactory nerve provides what type of innervation to nasal epithelium
special sensory (smell)
What comes off of the olfactor bulb and goes through the cribriform plate
where is olfactory mucosa
restricted to a small area in the superior portion of the nasal cavity inferior to the cribriform plate
Ethmoidal branch off of ophthalmic nerve gives off what branch
function of nasopalatine n.
innervate nasal septum and anterior region of the palate