Identify a and b and provide actions
- a: frontalis: elevates eyebros and produces wrinkles on the forehead
- b: occipitalis: aids frontalis (by retracting scalp and aponeurosis)
Identify and give action
- Black arrow: Palpebral portion: Gently closes eye
- Red arrow: Oribtal portion: Tightly closes eye
Identify and name action
- Action: draws angle of mouth superolaterally; smiles
What muscle is responsible for increasing ridigity of cheek; keeping food between molars; and resisting distention
Identify and give action
- Resting activity (tonus) keeps mouth softly closed
- Constricts and Protrudes lips (kissing m!)
tearing of the orbicularis oris muscle
- common to brass players
Levator anguli oris m.
Identify "b" and name action
B: Levator anguli Superioris : elevates upper lip
Identify a and name action
depressor anguli oris
- Action: pouting hard
Identify c and give action
mentalis: wrinkles skin on chin
Identify green arrow and give action
Depressor Labii inferioris: draws lower lip down in frown
Which of the branches of the external carotid artery can be seen in the face?
- Superficial temporal
Which branch off the internal carotid can be seen in face?
Branches off an Opthalmic a.
The maxillary a. (off external carotid) has 2 terminal branches that exit onto the surface of the face. What are they?
- mental a.
- infraorbital a.
The opthalmic artery (off internal carotid) has a branche in the face that anastomoses with a branch from the external carotid artery. Name them
- Anastomosis with the angular
The facial artery and vein run together across the face. How can you tell the two apart
Facial artery runs Anterior to the facial vein
The pterygoid plexus is formed from what two veins
- Deep facial v. (from facial v. off internal juggular v.) and Maxillary v. (from external jugular v.)
The pterygoid plexus is connected to what sinus?
List the lymphatics of the face
- Buccal nodes
- Parotid nodes
- Submental nodes
- Submandibular nodes
- Mastoid nodes
- Occipital nodes
Why is lip carcinoma more common on the lower lip?
Lower lip has dual lymphatic drainage
- Lateral: submandibular
- Central: submental
What nerves supply sensory innervation to the face?
Trigeminal CN V
- Ophthalmic (V1)
- Maxillary (V2)
- Mandibular (V3)
What branches off of Ophthalmic (CN V1) provide sensory innervation to face?
- external nasal
What branches off of the maxillary n. (CN V2) gives sensory innervation to face
What branches off of the mandibular n (CN V3) supplies sensory innervation to the face
What branches off of the facial nerve (CN VII) supply motor innervation to the face
To zanzibar by motor Car (In parotid plexus)
- Marginal Mandibular
- Posterior Auricular n.
facial nerve damage and paralysis of the muscles supplied by its motor branches
- eversion of lower eyelid
- drooping of angle of mouth
- inability to maintain saliva or food within oral cavity
The parotid gland delivers saliva to the oral cavity via what? What are its distinguishing factors?
- parotid duct
- crosses over masseter muscle and pierce buccinator muscle to enter oral cavity
What structures run within the parotid gland?
- Parotid plexus of the facial nerve (CN VII)
- Retromandibular v.
- External carotid artery
- Parotid sheath is continuous with the superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia
- swelling of gland is very painful and can compromise structures passing through
- Commonly seen in mumps
- Parasympathetic innervation to the parotid gland starts in what plexus?
- Where does it synapse?
- What nerve does the postganglionics hitchhike on to get to the parotid gland?
- Tympanic plexus off CN IX
- Otic ganglion
- auriculotemporal nerve (CN V3)
Sympathetic innervation to head
- preganglionic axons synapse in superior cervical ganglion
- post ganglionic axons form sympathetic plexuses around carotid arteries
- follow arteries to destination
Name the layers of the scalp
C: connective tissue
L: Loose connective tissue
Name the vessels of the scalp. Name whether they come off of the internal or external carotid
- occipital a.
- Posterior auricular a.
- Superficial temporal a.
Why do deep wounds in the scalp gape open?
tension in frontalis and occipitalis
Why is the loose connective tissue layer of the scalp considered the "danger" area?
Emissary veins can carry infection into cranial cavity