head and neck embryology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in head and neck embryology Deck (33):
1

What is the phase called when the single layered blastula becomes trilaminar gastrula

gastrulation 

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2

invaginating epiblast cells have 2 fates:

  1. fill in between epiblast and hypoblast -> mesoderm
  2. replace hypoblast -> endoderm 

* remaining epiblast cells become ectoderm 

3

growth of WHAT causes lateral folding of the trilaminar disc?

somites 

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4

longitudinal growth of the cranial and caudal ends of the neural plate and tube causes the trilaminar disc to what?

undergo craniocaudal folding 

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5

The oropharyngeal membrane, which is initially cranial to developing neural tube, is folded inside developing head which seperates what?

pharynx from oral cavity 

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6

What are pharyngeal arches? Name them

paired bulges along the wall of the developing pharynx

  • 5 arches: 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6

7

mesoderm of the pharyngeal arches becomes what?

muscles of the head 

8

neural crest cells in the pharyngeal arches contribute to form what?

skeleton of head and neck 

9

Name the cranial nerve associated with each of the arches

  • arch 1: Trigeminal 
  • arch 2: Facial
  • arch 3: Glossopharyngeal
  • arch 4 and 6: Vagus 

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10

1st pharyngeal arch has 2 processes and 1 cartilage associated with it. Name them

  • maxillary process
  • mandibular process

*nerve associated CN V*

  • Cartilage: Meckel's cartilage 

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11

meckel's cartilage disappears except for 2 small pieces which ossify to form what?

malleus and incus of middle ear

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12

Mesenchyme of 1 pharyngeal arch derived from neural crest cells form the bones of 

mandible and lower face 

13

Mesoderm derived mesenchyme of the 1 pharyngeal arch  produces what

dermis of the face and muscles associated with mandible and ear

  • CN V innervates all first derived structures: muscles of mastication; tensor tympani and Tensor veli palatini; skin of face 

14

nerve of 2nd pharyngeal arch

facial n

15

cartilage of the 2nd pharyngeal arch becomes

  • part of body and lesser horn of hyoid
  • styloid process
  • stylohyoid ligament
  • stapes

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16

Muscles of the 2nd pharyngeal arch become?

  • stylohyoid and posterior digastric
  • stapedius
  • muscles of facial expression 

17

3rd pharyngeal arch becomes what

  • greater horn and inferior portion of the body of the hyoid bone
  • stylopharyngeus

18

4th pharyngeal arch becomes what

  • cartilages of larynx
  • cricothyroid, pharyngeal muscles
  • superior laryngeal nerve 

19

6th pharyngeal arch becomes what

  • intrinsic muscles of larynx (except cricothyroid
  • recurrent/inferior laryngeal nerve 

20

Between the pharyngeal arch swellings, how many external clefts and how many internal pouches develop

  • 1 external pharyngeal cleft
  • 4 internal pharyngal pouches

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21

first pharyngeal pouch and cleft form between first and second arch.  What does the cleft become? What does the pouch become?

  • cleft -> external auditory canal
  • pouch -> tympanic cavity and pharyngotympanic tube 

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22

what does 2nd pharyngeal pouch become

tonsils

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23

What does 3rd pharyngeal pouch become

glands

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24

What does 4th pharyngeal pouch become

contributes to C cells of thyroid gland

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25

Bones of the face, mandible, and hyoid have what origin

neural crest cells 

26

bones of the braincase have what origin

paraxial mesoderm 

27

Nasal placodes consist of what 3 parts

  • nasal pits
  • medial nasal prominence
  • lateral nasal prominence 

28

nasal prominences fuse to form what 

philtrum: intermaxillary segment 

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29

maxillary prominences form secondary plate and creates what

palatine shelves

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30

fusion of palatine shelves and what completes the formation of the secondary palate

nasal septum 

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31

Several swellings from the floor of the developing pharynx contribute to the development of what?

tongue 

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32

Tissues of Tongue have innervation from which arches

1-4

 

 

33

innervation of tongue muscles come from what

occipital somites: some mesoderm migrates in to the tongue to produce the muscles and the somite innervation is preserved