Brain, Plexi, and ANS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Brain, Plexi, and ANS Deck (65):
1

what are the two main divisions of the nervous system

sensory nervous system (afferent)
motor nervous system (efferent)

2

what are the two divisions of the sensory nervous system

somatic sensory
visceral sensory

3

what are the two divisions of the motor nervous system

somatic motor (voluntary motor)
automonic motor (involuntary motor)

4

what are the 4 main parts of the brain

cerebrum
cerebellum
diencephalon
brainstem

5

what are the sulci of the cerebrum

longitudinal fissure
central sulcus
lateral sulcus
parietoccipital sulcus

6

what are the lobes of the cerebrum

frontal - personality, thinking, motor control, emotions, speech
parietal - sensory, spatial orientation, language
temporal - auditory, learning, memory
occipital - vision
insula - taste

7

what are the pre and post central gyri

precentral gyrus = primary motor cortex
postcentral gyrus = primary somatosensory cortex

8

What and where is brocas area

the speech center, in the frontal lobe

9

what and where is wernicke's area

the general interpretive area, receives info from all sensory areas

10

what does the left cerebral hemisphere

more common
- reading, writing, math
- decision making
- speech and language

11

what does the right cerebral hemisphere

senses- touch, smell, sight, taste
recognition of faces, voices

12

what are the tracts of cerebral white matter

association tracts - go throughout each hemisphere (don't cross to the other)
commisural tracts - connect left and right hemisphere
projection tracts - down the midbrain, pons, and medulla and into the spinal cord

13

what are basal nuclei

masses of gray matter embedded in the white matter of the cerebrum

14

what is alzheimers disease

degenerative disease of the brain leading to memory loss, depresssion, and disorientation. caused by neurofibrillary triangles and beta-amyloid plaques

15

What are the parts of the diencephalon

hypothalamus
epithalamus (habenula and pineal gland)
thalamus

16

what is the function of the thalamus

relay station for motor and sensory information entering the cerebrum

17

What are the functions of the hypothalamus

BEETSHAM
behavior
endocrine
emotion
temperature
sleep/wake cycles
Hunger/thirst
autonomic control
memory

18

what does the pineal gland do

controls circadian rhythms

19

what are the functions of the medulla

reflexes, allow brain and spinal cord to communicate

20

what is the main function of the pons

modify respiratory rhythmycity and activity

21

What are the parts of the limbic system

hippocampus
parahippocampal gyrus
cingulate gyrus

22

what is the function of the limbic system

its the emotional brain, involved in motivation, emotion, and memory

23

what are the arteries that supply the brain with blood

vertebral artery (branch of subclavian)
internal carotid artery (branch of common carotid)
they connect at the cerebral arterial circle

24

how do the vertebral arteries get from subclavian to the brain

it branches off of the subclavian then travels through the tranverse foramina or C1-C6, enters through the foramen magnum, then the two merge and turn into the basilar artery

25

what are the branches off of the internal carotid artery

opthalmic artery
posterior communicating artery
middle cerebral artery
anterior cerebral artery

26

What is another name for the cerebral arterial circle

the circle of willis

27

what are the 5 components of the circle of willis

Anterior cerebral artery
Anterior communicating artery
internal carotid artery
posterior cerebral artery
posterior communicating artery

28

what are the functions of the meninges

separate the brain from the skull
enclose and protect blood vessels supplying the brain
contain and circulate CSF

29

What are the four dural septa

falx cerebri (between cerebral hemispheres)
tentorium cerebelli (separates cerebellum and cerebrum)
Falx cerebelli (between cerebellar hemispheres)
Diphragma sellae (covers sella turcica, infundibulum travels through it)

30

what are the 4 dural venous sinuses

superior sagittal
inferior sagittal
straight sinus
confluence of sinuses

31

what are the three meningeal arteries, and which is most important

middle meningeal artery (largest and most important)
anterior meningeal artyer
posterior membingeal artery

32

What are the brain ventricles

1 = lateral ventricles
2 = interventricular foramen
3 = third ventricle
4 = cerebral aqueduct
5 = fourth ventricle

33

Where does CSF come from, and what are its functions

it is produced in the choroid plexus
it circulates through the ventricles and subarachnoid space
in it the brain is buoyant, it protects the brain, and maintains a stable environment for the brain

34

what are arachnoid trabechulae

places where CSF moves out of the subarachnoid space, then into circulation

35

what is hydrocephalus

when CSF is blocked, can't drain, or overproduced and the skull fills with CSF. Treated with a shunt or removal of the third ventricle

36

What is the ANS

autonomic nervous system
- involuntary
- controls visceral effectors
- coordinate systems

37

what are the divisions of the ANS

sympathetic
parasympathetic
enteric

38

how many sensory and motor neurons are in the somatic nervous system and ANS

1 somatic sensory and 1 somatic motor in the somatic nervous system
1 visceral sensory and 2 autonomic motor in the ANS

39

what are the names of the 2 autonomic motor neurons in the ANS

preganglionic and postganglionic (ganglionic) neuron

40

what are the two divisions of the ANS

sympathetic division
parasympathetic division

41

what are the pre and post ganglionic neurons like in the sympathetic and parasympathetic

Sympathetic Preganglionic
- short, myelinated, and branched
Sympathetic postganlionic
- long, unmyelinated, and unbranched
Parasympathetic Preganglionic
- long, myelinated, unbranched
Parasympathetic postganglionic
- short, unmyelinated, and branched

42

what is another name for the sympathetic division and where does it originate

it is called the thoracolumbar division because it originates T1-L2 of the spinal cord

43

What is another name for the parasympathetic division and where does it originate

it is called the craniosacral division because it originates in the brainstem (CN III, VII, IX, X) and sacral spinal cord

44

What are the functions of the sympathetic division

fight or flight, activated in emergencies, when excited, or when stressed. it increases alertness, metabolic rate, and muscular abilities

45

What are the functions of the parasympathetic division

rest and digest, conserves energy and replenishes energy stores. it reduces metabolic rate and promotes digestion

46

how does the parasympathetic affect heart rate

it decreases heart rate with ACh

47

how does the sympathetic affect heart rate

it increases heart rate with NE

48

what are the three places that sympathetic neurons go after they leave the spinal cord

sympathetic chain ganglia (Pairs on either side of the spine)
collateral ganglia (unpaired, anterior to vertebral bodies)
Adrenal medulla

49

where do the sympathetic neurons go after the sympathetic chain ganglia

organs in the thoracic cavity and head

50

where do the sympathetic neurons go after the collateral ganglia

organs in the abdominopelvic region

51

what are the ganglia in the chain ganglia

3 cervical ganglia
10-12 thoracic ganglia
4-5 lumbar ganglia
4-5 sacral ganglia
1 coccygeal ganglion

52

What does the superior cervical sympathetic ganglia innervate

they eye and the salivary glands (as well as a portion to the heart and lungs - along with other ganglia)

53

how do the sympathetic neurons get to the head

they start at the superior cervical ganglia and they wrap around the internal carotid artery and form the carotid plexus

54

what cranial nerves make up the cranial portion of the parasympatheic nervous system

CN III
CN VII
CN IX
CNX

55

what ganglia do each of the cranial nerves that make up the parasympathetic nervous system go after they leave the CNS, and where do they go after

CN III goes to the ciliary ganglion, then to the intrinsic eye
CNXII goes to the pteryopalatine and submandibular ganglion, then to the salivary glands and lacrimal glands
CNIX goes to the otic ganglion, then goes to the parotid gland
CNX goes to the intramural ganglion, then to the visceral organs of the thoracic cavity and upper abdominal cavity

56

What is the enteric NErvous system

third ANS division with a net of nerves in the digestive tract walls that coordinates complex visceral reflexes

57

what are the types of receptors in the ANS

nicotinic (ACh) receptors are in between pre and post ganglionic neurons for both para and sympathetic neurons
muscarinic (ACh) receptors are the receptors on target organs of the parasympathetic
Adrenergic (NE/E) receptors are the receptors on target organisms of the sympathetic

58

nicotinic receptors are always excitatory

yep

59

Muscarinic receptors are always excitatory

NO, they can be both excitatory and inhibitory

60

what are the alpha adrenergic receptors like

NE stimulates them better than Beta receptors
Alpha 1 is excitatory (more common)
Alpha 2 is inhibitory (it inhibits parasympathetic)

61

what are the beta adrenegric receptors like

Beta 1 increases metabolic activity
Beta 2 triggers relaxation of smooth respiratory muslces
Beta 3 leads to lipolysis

62

When do sympathetic postganglionic neurons use cholinergic or nitroxidergic receptors

cholinergic to dilate vessels of skeletal muscles and brain, and sweat gland stimulation
nitroxidergic to dilate the vessels of skeletal muscles and brain

63

What are the four main plexuses

cervical
brachial
lumbar
sacral

64

What nerves come off of the cervical plexus

lesser occipital nerve
Great auricular nerve
Transverse cervical nerve
supraclavicular nerve
Phrenic nerve

65

What are the major nerves of the brachial plexus

musculocutaneous
median nerve
ulnar nerve
axillary nerve
radial nerve