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Flashcards in Brain Stem and Spinal Cord Deck (58):
1

what type of neurons are found in the alar and basal plates

alar plates are sensory neurons (dorsall in spinal cord)
basal plates are motor neurons (ventral in spinal cord)

2

the sensory nuerons in the alar plate are divided into two divisions, what are they are where are they found

they are the somatic sensory and visceral sensory, the somatic sensory is more dorsal, the visceral sensory is more ventral (closer to the sulcus limitans)

3

what is the sulcus limitans

the division between the alar and basal plates

4

the motor neurons in the basal plate are divided into two divisons, what are they, and where are they found

they are the visceral motor, and somatci moter. the visceral motor is more dorsal (closer to the sulcus limitans) the somatic motor is more ventral

5

somatic is on the outside, visceral is on the inside

.

6

What is the orientation of the alar and basal plates and their divisions in the brainstem (medulla and pons)

they are arranged (from medial to lateral)
(basal) somatic motor, visceral motor - sulcus limitans - (alar) visceral sensory, somatic sensory
they are all just ventral to the 4th ventricle

7

what is the branchial motor nuclei

it is specialized branchial arches forming the skeletal muscle in the head (they are motor nuclei that supply innervation to skeletal muscles that are only found in the brainstem)

8

where are the branchial motor nuclei found

ventral (away from 4th ventricle) to the visceral and somatic motor nuclei

9

what are the hearing and balance nuclei

sensory nuclei found only in the pons and medulla that help in hearing and balance

10

where are the hearing and balance nuclei found

dorsal (closer to the 4th ventricle) to the visceral and somatic sensory nuclei

11

what is the relation of sensory and motor neurons to the sulcus limitans in the pons and medulla

sensory nuclei are lateral to sulcus limitans and motor nuclei are medial to sulcus limitans

12

What are the cranial nerves that originate in the medulla oblongata

IX Glossopharyngeal
X Vagus
XI spinal accessory
XII Hypoglossal

13

what is the function of the IX glossopharnygeal nerve

sensation to the posterior third of the tongue and orophaynx

14

what is the function of the X vagus nerve

innervates heart, lungs, GI tract, palatal muscles, pharyngeal muscles, laryngeal muscles

15

what is the function of XI spinal accessory nerve

innervates the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles

16

What is the function of the XII hypoglossal nerve

innervates tongue muscles

17

What are the four nuclei found in the medulla

hypoglossal nucleus (CN XII)
Dorsal motor nucleus (CN X)
Inferior salvatory nucleus (CN IX)
Nucleus Ambiguous (CN IX and X)

18

What are the nuclei found in the caudal pons

abducens nucleus (CN VI)
Superior salvatory nucleus
Facial Nucleus

19

what are the nuclei found in the mid pons

trigeminal motor nucleus
spinal trigeminal nucleus and tract

20

what are the nuclei found in the midbrain

oculomotor nucleus
edinger westphal nucleus

21

what are the external anatomical features of the medulla

pyramid
olive
CN IX, X, XI, XII
4th ventricle

22

what are the external anatomical features of the pons

pons proper
middle cerebellar peduncle
CN V, VI, VII, VIII
fourth ventricle
basilar artery

23

what are the external anatomical features of the midbrain

cerebral peduncles
superior and inferior colliculus
CN III, IV
cerebral aqueduct

24

what does the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla control, how do you know if its damaged

CN XII it controls the muscle that prodtrudes the tongue if it is injured on one side when you stick your tongue out it will go to the side that is injured (lick your wounds)

25

what does the dorsal motor nucleus of the medulla control

it is CN X, and it controls the heart, trachea, bronchi, lungs, GI tract

26

what does the inferior salvatory nucleus of the medulla control

the parotid gland (visceral motor CN IX)

27

What does the nucleus ambiguus of the medulla control

laryngeal, palatal, and pharyngeal muscles (CN IX and X)

28

what level of the brainstem does the gag reflex test

the medulla (CNIX and CN X)

29

What are the cranial nerves that originate in the pons

CN V Trigeminal
CN VI Abducens
CN VII facial
CN VIII Vestibulocochlear

30

What are the functions of the trigeminal nerve

general sensory to the head (oral cavity and teeth) cornea, and muscles of mastication

31

what are the functions of the abducens nerve

lateral rectus of the eye

32

what are the functions of the facial nerve

muscles of facial expression, lacrimal gland, sublingual and submandibular salivary glands, taste of 2/3 anterior tongue

33

what are the functions of CNVIII vestibulococchlear nerve

hearing and balance

34

what does the abducens nucleus of the caudal pons innervate

lateral rectus of the eye (moves it laterally)

35

what does the superior salivatory nucleus of the caudal pons innervate

sublingual and submandibular salivary glands

36

what does the facial nucleus of the caudal pons innervate

muscles of facial expression

37

what does the trigeminal motor nucleus of the mid pons innervate

muscles of mastication

38

what does the spinal trigeminal nucleus and tract of the mid pons do

receives general sensory innervation from CN V face and head

39

what is involved in the corneal reflex

the trigeminal nucleus of mid pons (receives sensory information) and the facial nucleus of pons (blinks the eye)

40

what does the occulomotor nucleus of the midbrain (mesencephalon) do

moves the the eye up, medial, down. if its damaged the eye moves down and lateral

41

what does the edinger westphal nucleus of the midbrain (mesencephalon) do

innervate pupillary constrictor and ciliary muscles (eye dialates if damaged)

42

what does the caudal midbrain innervate

superior oblique muscle via the trochlear nucleus

43

What are the types and numbers of the vertebrae

cervical - 7
thoracic - 12
lumbar - 5
sacral - 5 (fused)
coccygeal (3-4 fused)

44

what are the three meningeal layers, and where is CSF found

dura mater
arachnoid mater
pia mater
CSF if sound between arachnoid mater and pia mater

45

how many spinal cord levels in each section are there

8 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
1 coccygeal

46

how many spinal nerves in each section are there

8 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
1 coccygeal

47

where does the transition from naming spinal nerves change from being named for the vertebral pedicle below it, to the vertebral pedicle above it

at cervical vertebra 7 (C8 nerve goes under C7 vertebra)

48

in a fetus the vertebral levels and spinal cord levels are lined up, in an adult they aren't

the vertebral column grows and becomes longer than the spinal cord, so the spinal cord levels become more and more superior than their corresponding vertebra level the further down the spinal cord you go

49

what does the alar plate become in the spinal cord

the dorsal horn (sensory)

50

what does the basal plate become in the spinal cord

the ventral horn (motor)

51

what is the white matter in the spinal cord

the myelinated axons (outside part)

52

how does the amount of white matter in the spinal cord change between levels of the spinal cord, and why

there is the most white matter in the cervical spinal cord, and it gets less and less as you go down the spinal cord with the least in the coccygeal spinal cord. this is because there are more axons in the cervical spinal cord

53

what are the ascending tracts of the spinal cord white matter

dorsal column - ascending sensory for fine touch, proprioception, and vibration
spinothalamic tract - ascending sensory for pain, temperature, and touch from contralateral side of body

54

what are the desceding tracts of the spinal cord

corticospinal tract - upper motor neurons from the cortex to the ventral horn gray matter

55

What are Rami, Trunks, and Roots

Roots - the two portions of nerves that directly connect to the spinal cord
Trunk - the place where the two rami meet, then turn into the two roots
Rami - the nerves that go out to the body

56

what are characteristis of nerve roots

one way streets
two roots
Dorsal (sensory, afferent, connects to dorsal horn)
Ventral (motor, Efferent, connects to ventral horn)

57

what are the characteristics of rami

two way streets (both motor and sensory axons)
two rami
Dorsal (muscles and skin in back)
Ventral (form plexuses)

58

dermatomes, what skin do they control
C5
C6
C7
C8
T1
T4
T10
L1
L4

C5 - shoulder
C6 - thumb
C7 - pointer and middle finger
C8 - pinkie and ring finger
T1 - sub clavicle
T4 - nipple line
T10 - bellybutton
L1 - inguinal
L4 - knees