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Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (19):
1

What is the transporter responsible for moving glucose into muscle and fat cells, that needs insulin to do so

GLUT-4

2

what inhibits glucagon secretion

insulin

3

What is used to test for diabetes, and what should be used

blood glucose levels are used, but fasting insulin levels should be used

4

What is insulin resistance

typically caused when insulin levels are high for long periods of time, it is when some pathways in cell no longer respond to insulin

5

What is the most widely used anti-diabetic drug, and what does it do

metformin, it increases insulin sensitivity and lower blood glucose and insulin

6

When do we use sulfonylureas, and what do they do?

they help the pancreas make insulin, they are used for MODY

7

What is the problem with using SGLT-inhibitors to lower insulin

it inhibits glucose reabsorption in the kidneys and increases risk of UTIs and kindey cancer

8

what is the problem with using thoiazolidinediones to lower insulin

they increase the action of insulin in adipose tissue = obeisity

9

what is the switch that flips a patient from IR to type 2 diabetes

when you get to the point that you aren't able to process the blood glucose due to insulin resistance and your blood glucose becomes too high. you have way too much insulin and too much blood glucose

10

what blood glucose level is considered hypoglycemic

below 40 mg/dl (below 15 is a coma)

11

what blood glucose concentration is too high for reabsorption by the kidney tubules

above 200 mg/dl

12

how do you diagnose each type of diabetes mellitus (type 1, type 2, MODY)

type 1 - test insulin levels, blood glucose levels, and anti-B antibodies
type 2 - test insulin levels. and blood glucose levels
MODY - rule out type 1 with anti-b antibodies, DNA testing

13

how is type 1 treated

insulin

14

how it type 2 treated

diet change, exercise,

15

how is MODY treated

lifestyle changes or sulfonureas

16

what are normal blood glucose levels

75-100 (110-126 = IR) above = diabetes

17

what are normal insulin levels

1-10 (>10 = IR) type 1 and MODY = 0 type 2 = >12

18

at what point do ketones become problematic

when you have so many ketones that you exceed the buffering capacity of blood and your blood becomes acidic

19

what is the effect of insulin on ketones

insulin inhibits ketone production