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Flashcards in Brainstem Deck (45):
1

All of the cranial nerves emerge from the brainstem except which ones?

Olfactory Nerve
Optic Nerve

2

What cranial nerves emerge from the midbrain?

CN III
CN IV

3

What cranial nerves emerge from the pons?

CN V
CN VI
CN VII
CN VIII

4

What cranial nerves emerge from the medulla?

CN IX
CN X
CN XI
CN XII

5

What are the functions of the brainstem?

Conduit - transfers information from the spinal cord to the brain and back

Cranial Nerves - analogous sensorimotor functions for the head that is found in the body

Integrative Function - reticular formation controls the maintenance of consciousness

6

What part of the brainstem includes the pyramids, olives and 4th ventricle?

Medulla

7

What part of the brainstem includes the basal pons, middle cerebellar peduncles and 4th ventricle?

Pons

8

What post of the brainstem includes the superior and inferior colliculi, cerebral peduncles and the cerebral aqueduct?

Midbrain

9

What is lateral to the 3rd ventricle?

Thalamus

10

What is the tectum?

Dorsal Part of the Midbrain

11

What are the parts of the brainstem involved in vision?

Superior Colliculus
Lateral Geniculate
Optic Nerve

SLO

12

What are the parts of the brainstem involved in hearing?

Auditory Nerve
Inferior Colliculus
Medial Geniculate

AIM

13

What is the function of the Spinal Tract of CN V?

It has a similar function to the STT, albeit in the head. It relays pain and temperature information in the head.

14

What structure is the spinal nucleus of V equivalent to?

Nucleus Propius

15

What structures can be found at the level of the caudal medulla (closed medulla)?

Pyramids
Internal arcuate fibers
Nucleus gracilis
Nucleus cuneatus
Spinal tract and nucleus of V
Medial lemniscus

16

What structures can be found at the level of the rostral medulla (open medulla)?

Inferior cerebellar peducle
Inferior olivary nucleus
Wide open 4th ventricle
Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

17

What structures can be found at the level of the caudal pons?

Deep cerebellar nuclei (fat guys eat donuts - fastigal, globose, emboliform, dentate)
Basal pons
Pontine gray nuclei
Ponto-cerebellar fibers (mossy fibers)
Middle cerebellar peduncle (HUGE)

18

What structures can be found at the level of the rostral pons?

Large basal pons
Medial lemniscus preparing to enter the thalamus “upside-down” (VPL)
STT entering VPL also
Beginning of PAG (peri aqueductal gray) - pain and autonomic functions
Superior cerebellar peduncle - preparing to decussate on way to red nucleus

19

What structures can be found at the level of the caudal midbrain?

Crossing of the SCP
Formation of a true aqueduct
Appearance of the inferior colliculus (slo-aim) IC deals with auditory functions via the medial geniculate
Cerebral peduncles (feet of the cerebrum) replace the basal pons. CST runs in center

20

What structures can be found at the level of the rostral midbrain?

Red Nucleus—end of SCP, beginning of RST Substantia Nigra—dopamine—
CN III
Big fat well defined choroid plexus'

21

What neurotransmitter does the locus ceruleus contain?

Noradrenaline

22

What neurotransmitter do the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area contain?

Dopamine

23

What do lesions of the ventral tegmental area cause?

Some form of mental illness

24

What do lesions of the substantia nigra cause?

Parkinson's Disease

25

What do the neurons of the raphe contain?

Serotonin

26

What do the neurons of the rostral brainstem and basal forebrain contain?

Acetylcholine

27

What are the 2 key nuclei in the basal forebrain?

Meynert
Septal

28

Where does the Meynert nucleus project to?

Widespread areas of the cerebrum

29

Where do the septal nuclei project?

Hippocampus

30

What does the destruction of the cholinergenic pathways cause?

Alzheimer's Disease

31

What is the brainstem level of the red nucleus?

Rostral Midbrain

32

What is the brainstem level of the inferior colliculus?

Caudal Midbrain

33

What is the brainstem level of the nucleus gracilus?

Caudal Medulla

34

What is the brainstem level of the inferior olivary nucleus?

Rostral Medulla

35

What is the brainstem level of the decussation of the SCPs?

Caudal Midbrain

36

What is the main artery of the olive?

Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery and Vertebral Artery

37

What is the main artery of the basal pons?

Basilar Artery

38

What is the main artery of the middle cerebellar peduncle?

Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery

39

What is the main artery of the cerebral peduncle?

Posterior Cerebral Artery

40

What is the main artery of the inferior cerebellar peduncle?

Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery

41

What is implicated in Parkinson's Disease?

Dopamine

42

What is synthesized mainly by neurons near the midline through out the brainstem reticular formation?

Serotonin

43

What is used as a transmitter by neurons of the locus ceruleus?

Norepinephrine

44

What is used as a transmitter by neurons that project from the basal nucleus to widespread cortical areas?

Acetylcholine

45

What is the medial lemniscus?

The medial lemniscus is formed by the crossings of internal arcuate fibers. Lesion of the medial lemnisci causes an impairment of vibratory and touch-pressure sense.