Flashcards in Brainstem Deck (45):
All of the cranial nerves emerge from the brainstem except which ones?
What cranial nerves emerge from the midbrain?
What cranial nerves emerge from the pons?
What cranial nerves emerge from the medulla?
What are the functions of the brainstem?
Conduit - transfers information from the spinal cord to the brain and back
Cranial Nerves - analogous sensorimotor functions for the head that is found in the body
Integrative Function - reticular formation controls the maintenance of consciousness
What part of the brainstem includes the pyramids, olives and 4th ventricle?
What part of the brainstem includes the basal pons, middle cerebellar peduncles and 4th ventricle?
What post of the brainstem includes the superior and inferior colliculi, cerebral peduncles and the cerebral aqueduct?
What is lateral to the 3rd ventricle?
What is the tectum?
Dorsal Part of the Midbrain
What are the parts of the brainstem involved in vision?
What are the parts of the brainstem involved in hearing?
What is the function of the Spinal Tract of CN V?
It has a similar function to the STT, albeit in the head. It relays pain and temperature information in the head.
What structure is the spinal nucleus of V equivalent to?
What structures can be found at the level of the caudal medulla (closed medulla)?
Internal arcuate fibers
Spinal tract and nucleus of V
What structures can be found at the level of the rostral medulla (open medulla)?
Inferior cerebellar peducle
Inferior olivary nucleus
Wide open 4th ventricle
Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)
What structures can be found at the level of the caudal pons?
Deep cerebellar nuclei (fat guys eat donuts - fastigal, globose, emboliform, dentate)
Pontine gray nuclei
Ponto-cerebellar fibers (mossy fibers)
Middle cerebellar peduncle (HUGE)
What structures can be found at the level of the rostral pons?
Large basal pons
Medial lemniscus preparing to enter the thalamus “upside-down” (VPL)
STT entering VPL also
Beginning of PAG (peri aqueductal gray) - pain and autonomic functions
Superior cerebellar peduncle - preparing to decussate on way to red nucleus
What structures can be found at the level of the caudal midbrain?
Crossing of the SCP
￼￼Formation of a true aqueduct
Appearance of the inferior colliculus (slo-aim) IC deals with auditory functions via the medial geniculate
Cerebral peduncles (feet of the cerebrum) replace the basal pons. CST runs in center
What structures can be found at the level of the rostral midbrain?
Red Nucleus—end of SCP, beginning of RST Substantia Nigra—dopamine—
Big fat well defined choroid plexus'
What neurotransmitter does the locus ceruleus contain?
What neurotransmitter do the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area contain?
What do lesions of the ventral tegmental area cause?
Some form of mental illness
What do lesions of the substantia nigra cause?
What do the neurons of the raphe contain?
What do the neurons of the rostral brainstem and basal forebrain contain?
What are the 2 key nuclei in the basal forebrain?
Where does the Meynert nucleus project to?
Widespread areas of the cerebrum
Where do the septal nuclei project?
What does the destruction of the cholinergenic pathways cause?
What is the brainstem level of the red nucleus?
What is the brainstem level of the inferior colliculus?
What is the brainstem level of the nucleus gracilus?
What is the brainstem level of the inferior olivary nucleus?
What is the brainstem level of the decussation of the SCPs?
What is the main artery of the olive?
Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery and Vertebral Artery
What is the main artery of the basal pons?
What is the main artery of the middle cerebellar peduncle?
Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery
What is the main artery of the cerebral peduncle?
Posterior Cerebral Artery
What is the main artery of the inferior cerebellar peduncle?
Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery
What is implicated in Parkinson's Disease?
What is synthesized mainly by neurons near the midline through out the brainstem reticular formation?
What is used as a transmitter by neurons of the locus ceruleus?
What is used as a transmitter by neurons that project from the basal nucleus to widespread cortical areas?