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1

What is Blocage and Deblocage?

the respective holding and releasing of reserve wines to blend a champagne each year. AOP reg. required min 20% blocage from each house every year.

2

What is a mono cru and mono parcelle champagne

cru=single village
parcelle=vineyard

3

What is MCR (Moüt Concentré et Rectifié)?

a concentrated and rectified grape must increasingly preferred by small growers over liqueur d'expedition

4

What are some notable 1er crus of Montagne de Reims?

Vrigny, Écueil, Trépail, Tauxières-Mutry

5

Notable 1er cru villages of Vallée de la Marne?

Hautvillers, Cúmieres, Dizy, Mareuil-sur-Aÿ

6

Notable 1er cru villages of Côte de Blancs?

Cuis, Vertus

7

What are the 2 types of chalkly soils in Champagne?

Mieraster Chalk (extinct sea urchins)
Belemnite Chalk (extinct cephalopods)

8

What GC village if for red only? Which for white only?

R=Tours-sur-Marne (Marne)
W=Chouilly (Côte de Blancs)

9

Who produces Clos de Gouisses? 1st vintage?

Philipponnat, 1935

10

Name GC villages of the Montagne de Reims? How many?

9
Sillery
Puisiuex
Beaumont-sur-Vesie
Verzenay
Mailly-Champagne
Verzy
Louvois
Bouzy
Ambonnay

11

Name GC villages of the Vallée de la Marne? How many?

2
Aÿ
Tours-sur-Aÿ

12

Name GC villages of Côte des Blancs? How many?

6
Chouilly (whites only)
Oiry
Cramant
Avize
Oger
Le-Mesnil-sur-Oger

13

Which GC villages were added afte 1985?

Verzy (Reims)
Chouilly (CdB)
Oiry (CdB)
Oger (CdB)
Le-Mesnil-sur-Oger (CdB)

14

Which 1er cru villages of Champagne are historically 99% Echelle de Crus?

Tauxieres
Marueil sur Aÿ

15

How much is a "mare" of grapes?
How much juice may be extracted from a mare?
How much is then divided into vin de cuvée and vin de taille?

4,000 kg
2,550 L total
2050 vin de cuvée, 500 vin de taille

16

what is minimum must weight in Champagne?

143 g/L

17

What is a Bidule?

plastic cap under crown cap used to capture sediment during remuage

18

What is the dominant soil type of the Aube?

Clay

19

Which Champagne cru has all 7 varieties in it?

"les 7" by Laherte Frères

20

What is Fromenteau?

Pinot Gris in Champagne

21

What 2 cuvées are produced by Marie Courtin? What are their assemblages and aging regime?

Resonance and Efflorescence
both 100% single vineyard
Resonance all aneorobic, Efflorescence in wood

22

What is Vin Clair?
What is its approx. abv?
What is the min RS?

Base wines of champagne that have not undergone 2nd fermentation
approx 11% abv
10g/L

23

What mono parcelle champagne is produced by Billecart-Salmon? Cepage and first vintagee?

"Clos-St-Hilaire" (in Mareuil-sur-Aÿ) 100% PN, first vint. 1995

24

What is mono parcelle of Agrapart et Fils? Cepage and first vintage?

"Vénus" (Avize) 100% chardonnay

25

what is a mono parcelle of Egly-Ouriet? Cepage and first vintage?

"Les Crayères" (Ambonnay), 100% PN, first vint 1989

26

Name two mono parcelles of Jacquesson? Cepage and first vintage?

"Dizy Carne Boutray" (Dizy) 100% Chard, 1995
"Avize Champ Cain" (Avize) 100% Chard, 2002

27

Name 2 mono parcelles of Krug? Cepage and first vintage?

"Clos du Mesnil" (Le Mesnil-sur-Oger) 100% Chard, 1979
"Clos d'Ambonnay" (Ambonnay) 100% PN, 1995

28

Name mono parcelle of Pierre Peters? Cepage and first vintage?

"Cuvée Speciale les Chetillons" (Le-Mesnil-sur-Oger) 100% Chard, 2000

29

Name tete de cuvées for
Ayala
Deutz
Duval Leroy
Gosset
Henriot
Laurent-Perrier

Cuvée Perle d'Ayala
Cuvée William Deutz, Amor de Deutz
Femme de Champagne
Celebris
Cuvée des Enchanteleurs
Grande Siecle

30

Who makes Champagne Charlie? Final vintage?

Charles Heidsieck (1985)

31

Which river runs through Mont. de Reims?

Vesle River

32

Which 2 rivers cut through Côte de Bars?

Aube in NE
Seine in SW

33

Name top vintages of Champagne pre 1970

1914, 1921, 1949, 1959, 1961, 1964, 1966

34

Name top vintages of Champagne in;
70s?
80s?
90s?
00s?

71, 75, 76, 79
81,82, 85, 88
90, 96
02, 08

35

What are some of the worst vintages of Champagne history? Also in 90s? And 2000s?

*72, 77, 84*
91, 94, 97 (so-so)
01, 03

*so shitty there was no declared vintage!

36

Who was cellar master of Abbey of Hautvillers from 1668-1715?

Dom Perignon

37

What is Veuve Cliquot's full name?

Madame Barbe-Nicole Ponsardin

38

Which house created the first brut bottling? Which year?

Pommery (1874)

39

What year was Champagne initially delimited? What year was the Aube reinstated?

1911
1927

40

How many villages are authorized to grow grapes for Champagne?

357

41

Who is Otto Kleinbasch?

German appointed overseer of wine trade between France and Germany during WWII. Placed high demands on production of Champagne, nicknamed "Weinfüher"

42

What are the 7 grapes of champagne? Which is most planted? Which are no longer authorized for new plantings?

Chardonnay, Pinot Noir (most planted), Pinot Meunier
*Petit Meselir, *Pinot Blanc Vrai, *Arbane, *Pinot Gris

*no new plantings

43

What is average vine age in Champagne?
Which 4 pruning methods are allowed?

20yrs
Cordon de Royat, Chablis, Vallée de la Marne, Guyot (double or simple)

44

Which 3 villages house the majority of the larger Champagne firms?

Reims, Aÿ, Épernay

45

Which grapes of Champagne are most planted in which regions?

Pinot Noir (Mont. de Reims, Aube)
Chard (Côte de Sezanne, Côte de Blancs)
Meunier (Vallée de la Marne)

46

How many GC and 1er cru villages are there in Champagne

17 GC cru
42 1er cru

47

What is the CIVC?

Regulatory body overseeing relations between growers and produers
Regulates harvest size, blocage/deblocage levels
Historically set the prices through Échelle de Crus %=$ system (GC=100% of set price)

48

What is the Échelle de Crus?

Price setting system for growers in Champagne. 100% rating system in which GC crus get 100% of set price and other villages get decreased % of price from there. Revised in 1985 to 80-100% system, abolished entirely in 2000s

49

What is débourbage?

period of 8-15 hrs in which freshly pressed must is allowed to settle at a cool temp to remove the remaining solids (bourbes) via racking

50

How much pressure is in a bottle of Champagne?

5-6 atmospheres

51

What is min sur latte aging req's for NV champs?

12mo

52

What is unique about the handling of Bollinger's "RD" bottling?

"Recemment Dégorgé"
(kept sur point for a number of years and only disgorged to order)

53

What is the name for the wire cage around a Champagne cork?

Muselet

54

What are total aging req's for NV and V champagnes?

NV= 15 mo (12 sur lie, 3btl)
V=36 mo)

55

Which large format btl size of champagne has been discontinued? When?

Rheobaum (1989)

56

What are still wine AOPs of Champagne?

Rosé de Riceys=100% rosés from Les Riceys, cru village in Aube
Coteaux Champenois=R, W, R from whole AOP

57

What is the "Special Club?" When was it founded? Who are some notable producers?

A consortium of grower-produers fd. in 1971 to share marketing and packaging resources. Members must be Recolant-Manipulant and estate bottled. All growers prestige cuvées are in identical packaging. Also called Club Trésors. 27 members, including J Lassalle, Paul Bara, Goustan Chiquet, Pierre Gimmonet, Marc Hébrart

58

Altitude/climate/soil of Champagne?

Northerly, cool, continental
49th parallel
Chalk

59

Name the 7 Crémant AOPs of France

Cremant d'Alsace (Alsace)
Cremant de Jura (Jura)
Cremant de Bordeaux (Bordeaux)
Cremant de Loire (Loire)
Cremant de Bourgogne (Bourg.)
Cremant de Die (Rhône)
Cremant de Limoux (Languedoc)

60

Name regions of Champagne

Montagne de Reims
Vallée de la Marne
Côte de Blancs
Côte de Sezanne
Côte de Bars (Aube)

61

What is methode ancestrale?

Secondary fermentation begins in tank and ends in bottle

62

sweetness levels of Champagne?

Brut Nature/Natural/Zero (0)
Extra Brut (0-6)
Brut (0-12)
Extra Dry (12-17)
Sec (17-32)
Demi-Sec (32-50)
Doux (50+)

63

Champagne undergoes primary fermentation in what kind of vessel?

used oak or cement tanks (some producers use portion new oak)

64

Oldest house for still and sparkling champagne?

Gosset (1584) for still
Ruinart (1729) for sparkling

65

How long does secondary fermentation last in Methode Champenois?

6-12 weeks

66

Define Autolysis?

the process of breaking down spend yeast cells in secondary fermentation

67

define liqueur de tirage?

mixture of still wine, yeast, and sugar added to Champagne to begin secondary fermentation

68

define assemblage

initial blending process of still wines destined to become champagne

69

define remuage/riddling?

process of moving spent yeast cells to the neck of the bottle of Champagne so they can be removed via degorgement. Hand performed by a remeur (riddler) or mechanically on a gyropalatte

70

How often are vintages declared in champagne

2-3 times a decade, each house decides to declare a vintage for themselves or not

71

must of champagne is often chapitalized? Fined/Filtered?

Yes
No
not universal rules

72

Define dosage. Also known as?

Addition of still wine and sugar added after degorgement used to determine final sweetness level of champagne. Also called "liqueur d'éxpedition"

73

Define pupitre

An A-frame rack used in hand-riddling process

74

What is the only region to exclude AOP from wine label?

Champagne

75

List sizes of Champagne bottles

Piccolo/Split (1/4)
Demi (1/2)
Magnum (2)
Jerobaum (4)
Rehobaum (6)
Methusalah (8)
Salamazar (12)
Balthazar (16)
Nebuchanezzar (20)
Solomon (24)
Primat (36)

M.y J.ohnson R.eally M.akes S.ense B.oys N.ever S.top P.artying

76

list steps of methode traditionelle

Pressings
Assemblage
Primary fermentation
Bottling
Liqueur de tirage
Secondary Fermentation
Sur latte aging
Remuage
Degorgement
Dosage
Corking

77

vintage champagne must be composed of what percentage of grapes from that vintage?

100%

78

Name Tete de Cuvees for:
Billecart-Salmon
Bollinger
Gosset
Krug
Pol Roger
Louis Roederer
Salon
Veuve Cliquot
Taittinger
Moet et Chandon

Grande Cuvée
Vieilles Vignes
Gosset
Clos de Mesnil, Clos d'Ambonnay
Sir Winston Churchill
Cristal
Les Mesnil (only cuvée)
La Grande Dame
Comtes de Champagne BdB
Dom Perignon (formerly, now own co.)

79

7 different styles of Champagne

NV
V
Rosé
BdB
BdN
tete de cuvée
single vineyard (clos)

80

define:
Vin de Cuvée
Vin de Taille
Rebêche

first pressing (2050 L)
second pressing (500 L)
third pressing (remaining 1-10% of pressing, sold for use in distillate production)

81

define prise de mousse

term for secondary fermentation

82

define following abbreviations:
NM
RM
CM
RC
SR
ND
MA

Negociant Manipulant (buys grapes an base wines)
Recolant Manipulant (owns 90% vineyard/grapes "grower")
Coperative Manipulant (growers co-op under 1 brand)
Recolant Cooperative (growers make wine under co-op but sell under own brand)
Societe de Recolants (union of growers that share resources and make wines collectively, sells multiple brands)
Negociant Distributor (middleman who sells wine he does not make)
Marque d'Acheteur (a business that buys wine and sells under own brand)