Flashcards in Viti-Viti-Viticulture and Vinification Deck (83):
What is a teinturier?
Red grape with red juice due to anthrocyanin pigments accumulating within the grape
What is Bacterial Blight?
caused by xanthomonas ampelina bacteria, kills young vine shoots
spread by rain and unclean pruning tools
controlled by hot water treatment, copper sprays (BDX mix)
what is Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP)?
a trellising system that can be used for cane or spur pruned vines
What is Esca?
early discovered disease
thrives in warm climate, no cure
affects young vine development, rarely live past 30
mature vines oak becomes soft and spongy
spread by rainfall, wine, pruning shears
What is Black Rot?
Native to North America
Came to Europe on Phylloxera resistant rootstocks
caused by Guignardia Bidwell fungus
manifests as black spots on vine shoots, leaves, and berries
controlled with fungicides
What is Délestage?
chapeau management process
wine is racked into separate vessel, chapeau remains, then wine is pumped back on top of chapeau
How are Degree Days calculated?
multiplying days in each month of growing season (April 1-Oct 31) by mean # of degree days over 50 F for that month. Each month's totals are added to achieve the "heat summation"
What are the following cooperage terms?
List several examples of Méthode Ancestrale wines
Clairette de Die Méthode Dioise Ancestrale
Gaillac Mousseaux Méthode Gaillaçoise
Name the associated VdL for each region:
Pineau de Charantes
Floc de Gascogne
MacVin du Jura
What is Débourbage?
time period of allowing wine to settle after pressing so that it may be racked off it's solids and clarified prior to fermentation, common in whites
What is the min. amount of sunshine req'd to support viticulture?
What is the difference between spur and cane pruning?
spur=upper cane is removed, lower cane cut back to 2 buds, creating a new spur. Head or Cordon trained vines
Cane=min. maintained on each vine is 1 spur + 1 cane. Head trained vines only
What is Geneva System? Lyre system?
cordon extends outward in flat U shape
What is the Cordon de Royat?
similar to Guyot
spur-pruned permanent cordon extends horizontally from trunk
preferred for PN in Champagne
What is Gobelet system?
Ancient vine-training system
vines (usually unsupported) resembles a goblet
Common in S. Rhône and S. Italy
Italy="aburello," Spain="en vaso," Australia="bush vines"
What 2 genetic factors most influence the character and health of a vine?
rootstock selection (resistance to many diseases, drought, salt/lime tolerance, vine vigor)
What affect does fermentation vessel size have on fermentation length and temp?
small vessel=cool, long fermentation
large=short, hot fermentation
*not accounting for temp. control
What sulfides may be produced under reductive winemaking conditions?
hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
mercaptans and more
*Can be pretty f'in rank
Ethyl acetate manifests as what in wine?
What is Flavesence Dorée?
form of vine yellows, first discovered in Armagnac in 1949
spread by leafhoppers and propagation of infected vines
delays budbreak and slows shoot growth, shrivelled berries, bunches fall from vines, discolored leaves, pustules and cracks will form, will kill young vines
No cure exists, pesticides can slow spread
What is crown gall?
Bacterial vine disease
"Black Knot" (Agrobacterium tumefaciens bacteria)
vine develops tumors ("galls") on trunk, strangling the vine
thrives in cooler climate
spread through propagation of infected budwood
Which acids may e used for acidification process?
is dealcoholization by physical separation legal in EU?
Legalized in 2009, adjustment of no more than 2%
Barrel fermented wines often undergo what process?
What is reverse osmosis?
technology of alcohol adjustment
separates wine into 2 parts (permeate and retentrate)
permeate (water and ethanol) distilled to desired level, recombined w/ retentrate (aromatic compounds)
what are the 3 most important factors that affect overall quality of the grape?
vin de goutte
vin de presse
vin de goutte=high quality free run juice drawn directly from the must
vin de presse=remainder of the must pressed into more tannic wine than vin de goutte
name common fining agents
casein (milk protein)
isinglass (sturgeon bladder)
what is the French term for "fining?"
what is soutirage?
racking=movement of wine from 1 vessel to another, creating aeration and clarification as wine is removed from lees
Budbreak=when vines emerge from dormancy (ave air temp=50F). March in Northern Hemi, Sept. in Southern Hemi. Vines still vulnerable to frost
Flowering=occurs when embryo bunches form on shoots mid-April. Flowers form in 6-12 weeks, bloom in approx. 10 days
Fruit Set=when the vines self-pollinate and flowers are pollinated into berries, susceptible to cold, frost, and wind
Veraison=when sugars move from vines to grapes. Approx in Aug.
What is the Guyot System?
head-trained vine system that requires a vertical trellis, one spur, and one main 2-yr old cane. Also Guyot Double variant. Developed in 1860 by Jules Guyot
What is downy mildew?
fungal disease (peronospora)
caused by Plasmopara viticola
Native N. America
attacks green parts, affects photosynthesis
first noticed as oil spot on leaves, cottony growth develops on underside of leaves
arid regions prohibit growth
BDX mix (copper sulphate, water, lime) inhibits
What is powdery mildew?
native to N. America (Uncinula necator)
thrives in humid but dry conditions, rainfall a detriment
affects all green parts of plant
affected fruit avoided, creates off flavors in wine
controlled by sulfur and other fungicides
What is the Tendone System? Alternate names?
Alternative training system in which vines are trained upwards so workers can pass beneath them. Also Pergola (Italy) or Enforcado (Portugal)
Name the 3 elemental nutrients a vine needs
Describe saignée method of rosé production
ferment the bleed off juice from must.
What is Pierce's Disease?
vine disease caused by insect "Glassy Winged Sharpshooter"
inhibits plant from producing Chlorophyll
kills it within 1-5 years
no known cure, affecting parts of N. Cali and Mexico
name 4 main types of plant disease
What is Bunch Rot?
A grouping of diseases caused by number of fungi
can reduce yields, impart moldy flavors in wine
Botrytis is bunch rot (req warm weather and 90%+ humidity to germinate)
unfavorable form known as grey rot
what are VDL and VDN
Vin du Liqueur=neutral spirit is added to an unfermenting must before fermentation
Vin doux Naturel=neutral spirit is added to a fermenting must to arrest fermentation and retain sugars
What is Reductive winemaking?
Winemaking in an anaerobic environment
What is the temp range acceptable for yeasts to be active? relation to Red or White wine fermentation?
White at cooler end (fruit and freshness)
Red at warmer end (up to 90s, past 95F lost flavors. Higher fermentation temp more extraction)
Who is the founder of Biodynamic viticulture?
Austrian Rudolf Steiner in 1924
What is Leafroll Virus
spread by propagating infected vines or by mealybugs. Causes reduced yields and delayed ripening. Incurable but will not kill vine. Noted by downward curling of leaves
What is Fanleaf Degeneration?
spread by soil nematodes feeding on infected roots. Causes reduced yields, deformed shoot growth, poor fruit set, shot (seedless) berries. Infected vines gotta go
Which compound produced as a byproduct of maloactic fermentation is responsible for "buttery" aromas in wine?
What is passerillage?
leaving grapes on vine past normal harvest so they dry out and concentrate flavors. Distinct from botrytis, no exposure to fungus
What is TCA?
Trichloranisole. Cork taint
a gyropallette holds how many bottles?
around what percentage of alcohol will ambient yeasts begin to die from the alc. they create?
What is Transvasage?
Part of Transfer Method of Champagne production. Bottles are disgorged under pressure into large tanks. Primarily used for odd-sized formats
Describe life cycle of vine (in years)?
3 years=fruit production
10 years=root system matures
20 years=production declines
50 years=uneconomical to remain
Describe the head-trained vine system
a vine is not provided with a permanent "cordon" (arm) and trunk ends in knob or "head"
describe the cordon-trained vine system
vine is provided with at least 1 permanent support cane (arm/cordon) vine produces many fruit bearing shoots from it each year
What is field grafting?
process by which an existing vineyard is replaced by 1 variety from another w/o uprooting any vines
What is a vine canopy?
portion of vine containing branches, leaves, and grapes
Describe Cold Stabilization. Why use it?
cooling the wine to approx 25F so the tartartic acid crystallizes and may easily be removed
Describe the following climates:
How much rain min. does a vine require in a year?
What is the mean annual temp that a vine prefers?
Ave summer temp for red vs. white?
50-68F (ideal is 57F)
ave summer temps:
when is harvest?
N hemi=late aug-early nov
S hemi=late feb-early may
all depending on varietal and style of wine
difference between pigeage and remontage?
pigeage=punching down of chapeau
remontage=washing juice over chapeau to submerge it
define the growth cycle of a vine each year
budbreak-flowering-fruit set-veraison-harvest-leaf fall
What are the latitudes that the majority of the world's wine regions exist between?
What is a chapeau?
"cap" of grape solids that form on top of a must during fermentation
What are the 3 basic methods for fortifying wine?
Arrest ferm when sugars are still present (Mutage) (ie, Port)
Adding a neutral spirit after wine is ferm to dry (ie, Sherry) but may add sweetened wine/grape syrup afterwards
adding neutral spirit before ferm (mistelle) (ie, VdL)
describe the continuous method of sparkling wine production
developed in USSR
similar to tank method
base wine pumped through series of interconnected tanks while undergoing 2nd ferm
liqueur de tirage added constantly to wine
lees sits in 1st several tanks, higher autolytic flavors than tank method
The lighter the toast of a barrel imparts more of which quality in a wine?
Lighter toast=higher extraction of oak tannin
what does EU law state about the blending method of rosé? What is the notable exception to this law?
forbidden at the PGI level and above
What is élevage?
maturation process of wine post-fermentation.
may be several months or years
French definition implies "raising, maturing, growing" a wine
List the Degree Days for each of the 5 regions?
describe the cold soak process in winemaking
developed in Bourg. in 1970s, now popular for PN production worldwide
cold soak grapes at cool temp w/ addition of SO2 for 1 week before maceration
runs off some juice to achieve higher levels of extraction
What is the California Heat Summation Index?
a method of classifying climates solely by temperature
Recommended varietals are planted based on temp accordance
divides climates into 5 regions based on the number of degree days
Clonal vs. Massal selection?
clonal=propagating 1 genetically identical bud
massal=selecting best vines in a vineyard to propagate
What is dry farming
Approx. how many lbs of grapes does it take to make 1 btl of standard table wine?
approx. 2.6 lbs
what is battonage
stirring of lees
What is Eutypa Dieback?
"Dead Arm" (Eutypa lata fungus)
spores carried by rain, enter pruning wounds
common in Med. climates, difficult to contain
effects yield, stunted shoot growth, kills 1 cane (hence, "dead arm")
does not affect quality and some producers (particularly in Australia) embrace it
Name vine pests that were introduced to Europe from the Americas
Name methods for managing alcohol in finished wine
dilution with water