Viti-Viti-Viticulture and Vinification Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Viti-Viti-Viticulture and Vinification Deck (83):
1

What is a teinturier?

Red grape with red juice due to anthrocyanin pigments accumulating within the grape

2

What is Bacterial Blight?

caused by xanthomonas ampelina bacteria, kills young vine shoots
spread by rain and unclean pruning tools
controlled by hot water treatment, copper sprays (BDX mix)

3

what is Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP)?

a trellising system that can be used for cane or spur pruned vines

4

What is Esca?

"Black Measles"
early discovered disease
thrives in warm climate, no cure
affects young vine development, rarely live past 30
mature vines oak becomes soft and spongy
spread by rainfall, wine, pruning shears

5

What is Black Rot?

Native to North America
Came to Europe on Phylloxera resistant rootstocks
caused by Guignardia Bidwell fungus
manifests as black spots on vine shoots, leaves, and berries
controlled with fungicides

6

What is Délestage?

chapeau management process
wine is racked into separate vessel, chapeau remains, then wine is pumped back on top of chapeau

7

How are Degree Days calculated?

multiplying days in each month of growing season (April 1-Oct 31) by mean # of degree days over 50 F for that month. Each month's totals are added to achieve the "heat summation"

8

What are the following cooperage terms?
-Warming
-Shaping
-Toasting

Chauffage
Cintage
Bousinage

9

List several examples of Méthode Ancestrale wines

Bugey Cerdon
Clairette de Die Méthode Dioise Ancestrale
Gaillac Mousseaux Méthode Gaillaçoise

10

Name the associated VdL for each region:
-Champagne
-Cognac
-Armagnac
-Jura

Ratafia
Pineau de Charantes
Floc de Gascogne
MacVin du Jura

11

What is Débourbage?

time period of allowing wine to settle after pressing so that it may be racked off it's solids and clarified prior to fermentation, common in whites

12

What is the min. amount of sunshine req'd to support viticulture?

1,300 hrs

13

What is the difference between spur and cane pruning?

spur=upper cane is removed, lower cane cut back to 2 buds, creating a new spur. Head or Cordon trained vines
Cane=min. maintained on each vine is 1 spur + 1 cane. Head trained vines only

14

What is Geneva System? Lyre system?

Close variants
spur-pruned/cordon-trained
cordon extends outward in flat U shape

15

What is the Cordon de Royat?

similar to Guyot
spur-pruned permanent cordon extends horizontally from trunk
preferred for PN in Champagne

16

What is Gobelet system?

Ancient vine-training system
vines (usually unsupported) resembles a goblet
Common in S. Rhône and S. Italy
Italy="aburello," Spain="en vaso," Australia="bush vines"

17

What 2 genetic factors most influence the character and health of a vine?

rootstock selection (resistance to many diseases, drought, salt/lime tolerance, vine vigor)
Clonal selection

18

What affect does fermentation vessel size have on fermentation length and temp?

small vessel=cool, long fermentation
large=short, hot fermentation

*not accounting for temp. control

19

What sulfides may be produced under reductive winemaking conditions?

hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
mercaptans and more

*Can be pretty f'in rank

20

Ethyl acetate manifests as what in wine?

Volatile Acidity

21

What is Flavesence Dorée?

Phytoplasma disease
form of vine yellows, first discovered in Armagnac in 1949
spread by leafhoppers and propagation of infected vines
delays budbreak and slows shoot growth, shrivelled berries, bunches fall from vines, discolored leaves, pustules and cracks will form, will kill young vines
No cure exists, pesticides can slow spread

22

What is crown gall?

Bacterial vine disease
"Black Knot" (Agrobacterium tumefaciens bacteria)
vine develops tumors ("galls") on trunk, strangling the vine
thrives in cooler climate
spread through propagation of infected budwood

23

Which acids may e used for acidification process?

tartaric (preferred)
malic acids

24

is dealcoholization by physical separation legal in EU?

Legalized in 2009, adjustment of no more than 2%

25

Barrel fermented wines often undergo what process?

Battonage

26

What is reverse osmosis?

technology of alcohol adjustment
separates wine into 2 parts (permeate and retentrate)
permeate (water and ethanol) distilled to desired level, recombined w/ retentrate (aromatic compounds)

27

what are the 3 most important factors that affect overall quality of the grape?

climate
soil
slope

28

describe:
vin de goutte
vin de presse

vin de goutte=high quality free run juice drawn directly from the must
vin de presse=remainder of the must pressed into more tannic wine than vin de goutte

29

name common fining agents

egg whites
bentonite (clay)
casein (milk protein)
isinglass (sturgeon bladder)

30

what is the French term for "fining?"

collage

31

what is soutirage?

racking=movement of wine from 1 vessel to another, creating aeration and clarification as wine is removed from lees

32

what is:
Budbreak
Flowering
Fruit Set
Veraison

Budbreak=when vines emerge from dormancy (ave air temp=50F). March in Northern Hemi, Sept. in Southern Hemi. Vines still vulnerable to frost
Flowering=occurs when embryo bunches form on shoots mid-April. Flowers form in 6-12 weeks, bloom in approx. 10 days
Fruit Set=when the vines self-pollinate and flowers are pollinated into berries, susceptible to cold, frost, and wind
Veraison=when sugars move from vines to grapes. Approx in Aug.

33

What is the Guyot System?

head-trained vine system that requires a vertical trellis, one spur, and one main 2-yr old cane. Also Guyot Double variant. Developed in 1860 by Jules Guyot

34

What is downy mildew?

fungal disease (peronospora)
caused by Plasmopara viticola
Native N. America
attacks green parts, affects photosynthesis
first noticed as oil spot on leaves, cottony growth develops on underside of leaves
arid regions prohibit growth
BDX mix (copper sulphate, water, lime) inhibits

35

What is powdery mildew?

Fungal disease
native to N. America (Uncinula necator)
thrives in humid but dry conditions, rainfall a detriment
affects all green parts of plant
affected fruit avoided, creates off flavors in wine
controlled by sulfur and other fungicides

36

What is the Tendone System? Alternate names?

Alternative training system in which vines are trained upwards so workers can pass beneath them. Also Pergola (Italy) or Enforcado (Portugal)

37

Name the 3 elemental nutrients a vine needs

Nitrogen
Phosphorous
Potassium

38

Describe saignée method of rosé production

ferment the bleed off juice from must.

39

What is Pierce's Disease?

vine disease caused by insect "Glassy Winged Sharpshooter"
inhibits plant from producing Chlorophyll
kills it within 1-5 years
no known cure, affecting parts of N. Cali and Mexico

40

name 4 main types of plant disease

Fungal
Viral
Bacterial
Phytoplasma

41

What is Bunch Rot?

A grouping of diseases caused by number of fungi
can reduce yields, impart moldy flavors in wine
Botrytis is bunch rot (req warm weather and 90%+ humidity to germinate)
unfavorable form known as grey rot

42

what are VDL and VDN

Vin du Liqueur=neutral spirit is added to an unfermenting must before fermentation
Vin doux Naturel=neutral spirit is added to a fermenting must to arrest fermentation and retain sugars

43

What is Reductive winemaking?

Winemaking in an anaerobic environment

44

What is the temp range acceptable for yeasts to be active? relation to Red or White wine fermentation?

50-113F
White at cooler end (fruit and freshness)
Red at warmer end (up to 90s, past 95F lost flavors. Higher fermentation temp more extraction)

45

Who is the founder of Biodynamic viticulture?

Austrian Rudolf Steiner in 1924

46

What is Leafroll Virus

viral disease
spread by propagating infected vines or by mealybugs. Causes reduced yields and delayed ripening. Incurable but will not kill vine. Noted by downward curling of leaves

47

What is Fanleaf Degeneration?

viral disease
spread by soil nematodes feeding on infected roots. Causes reduced yields, deformed shoot growth, poor fruit set, shot (seedless) berries. Infected vines gotta go

48

Which compound produced as a byproduct of maloactic fermentation is responsible for "buttery" aromas in wine?

Diacetyl

49

What is passerillage?

leaving grapes on vine past normal harvest so they dry out and concentrate flavors. Distinct from botrytis, no exposure to fungus

50

What is TCA?

Trichloranisole. Cork taint

51

a gyropallette holds how many bottles?

504

52

around what percentage of alcohol will ambient yeasts begin to die from the alc. they create?

16-16.5%

53

What is Transvasage?

Part of Transfer Method of Champagne production. Bottles are disgorged under pressure into large tanks. Primarily used for odd-sized formats

54

Describe life cycle of vine (in years)?

3 years=fruit production
6 years=mature
10 years=root system matures
20 years=production declines
50 years=uneconomical to remain

55

Describe the head-trained vine system

a vine is not provided with a permanent "cordon" (arm) and trunk ends in knob or "head"

56

describe the cordon-trained vine system

vine is provided with at least 1 permanent support cane (arm/cordon) vine produces many fruit bearing shoots from it each year

57

What is field grafting?

process by which an existing vineyard is replaced by 1 variety from another w/o uprooting any vines

58

What is a vine canopy?

portion of vine containing branches, leaves, and grapes

59

Describe Cold Stabilization. Why use it?

cooling the wine to approx 25F so the tartartic acid crystallizes and may easily be removed

60

Describe the following climates:
-Macro
-Meso
-Micro

Region
vineyard
canopy

61

How much rain min. does a vine require in a year?

20-30"

62

What is the mean annual temp that a vine prefers?

Ave summer temp for red vs. white?

50-68F (ideal is 57F)

ave summer temps:
red=70F
white=66F

63

when is harvest?

N hemi=late aug-early nov
S hemi=late feb-early may

all depending on varietal and style of wine

64

difference between pigeage and remontage?

pigeage=punching down of chapeau
remontage=washing juice over chapeau to submerge it

65

define the growth cycle of a vine each year

budbreak-flowering-fruit set-veraison-harvest-leaf fall

66

What are the latitudes that the majority of the world's wine regions exist between?

30-50 lat

67

What is a chapeau?

"cap" of grape solids that form on top of a must during fermentation

68

What are the 3 basic methods for fortifying wine?

Arrest ferm when sugars are still present (Mutage) (ie, Port)
Adding a neutral spirit after wine is ferm to dry (ie, Sherry) but may add sweetened wine/grape syrup afterwards
adding neutral spirit before ferm (mistelle) (ie, VdL)

69

describe the continuous method of sparkling wine production

developed in USSR
similar to tank method
base wine pumped through series of interconnected tanks while undergoing 2nd ferm
liqueur de tirage added constantly to wine
lees sits in 1st several tanks, higher autolytic flavors than tank method

70

The lighter the toast of a barrel imparts more of which quality in a wine?

Lighter toast=higher extraction of oak tannin

71

what does EU law state about the blending method of rosé? What is the notable exception to this law?

forbidden at the PGI level and above

Champs baby!

72

What is élevage?

maturation process of wine post-fermentation.
may be several months or years
French definition implies "raising, maturing, growing" a wine

73

List the Degree Days for each of the 5 regions?

Regions:
1a=1,500-2,000F (85-1,111C)
1b=2,000-2,500F (1,111-1,389C)
2=2,500-3,000F (1,389-1,667C)
3=3,000-3,500F (1,667-1,944C)
4=3,500-4,000F (1,944-2,222C)
5=4,000-4,900F (2,222-2,700C)

74

describe the cold soak process in winemaking

developed in Bourg. in 1970s, now popular for PN production worldwide
cold soak grapes at cool temp w/ addition of SO2 for 1 week before maceration
runs off some juice to achieve higher levels of extraction

75

What is the California Heat Summation Index?

a method of classifying climates solely by temperature
Recommended varietals are planted based on temp accordance
divides climates into 5 regions based on the number of degree days

76

Clonal vs. Massal selection?

clonal=propagating 1 genetically identical bud
massal=selecting best vines in a vineyard to propagate

77

What is dry farming

without irrigation

78

Approx. how many lbs of grapes does it take to make 1 btl of standard table wine?

approx. 2.6 lbs

79

what is battonage

stirring of lees

80

What is Eutypa Dieback?

"Dead Arm" (Eutypa lata fungus)
spores carried by rain, enter pruning wounds
common in Med. climates, difficult to contain
effects yield, stunted shoot growth, kills 1 cane (hence, "dead arm")
does not affect quality and some producers (particularly in Australia) embrace it

81

Name vine pests that were introduced to Europe from the Americas

Phylloxera
Powdery Mildex
Downy Mildew
Black Rot

82

Name methods for managing alcohol in finished wine

spinning cones
Reverse Osmosis
dilution with water
vacuum distillation

83

What is shatter? when does it occur? How does it affect the grapes?

-when the remaining fruit embryo falls from the bunch
-flowering
-can cause uneven bunches, leading to uneven ripening