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Flashcards in Bryophytes Deck (28)
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1

What are the three phyla?

Liverworts, Hornworts and mosses

2

What derived traits are shared with tracheophytes?

Multicellular embryos, apical meristems

3

What features are lacking in bryophytes that are present in tracheophytes?

Roots, leaves and lignified transport system

4

What is the dominant stage?

Gametophyte

5

What is a protonema?

Characteristic of germinating moss spores, grow into a mass of filamentous cell with a large surface area

6

What is the gamete producing structure know as?

Gametophore - bears the gametangia

7

Why do gametophytes generally form ground hugging carpets?

Cant support a tall structure

8

Why is the structure very thin?

So they can distribute nutrients without a vascular system

9

What are rhizoids?

Long tubular single cells, not composed of toissues, role id to anchor the plants

10

Why are most bryophytes found in moist habitats?

Because they require a thin film of water for reproduction to take place

11

How are sporophytes of bryophytes different than in tracheophytes?

Cannot live independently, require the gametophyte for survival, smallest sporophyte of all extant plant groups

12

What are the features of the sporophyte?

A foot, seta and sporangium (capsule)

13

What is the role of the foot?

Embedded in the archegonia, obtains nutrients from the gametophyte

14

What is the role of the seta?

Conducts the materials from the foot to seta, elongated in some to elevate sporangium for better dispersal

15

What is the role of the sporangia?

uses nutrients to produce spores by meiosis

16

What is the peristome?

Ring of teeth like structures on capsule, that open under dry conditions and close in wet, to allow spores to be dispelled gradually

17

What feature do hornworts and mosses have that is lacking in liverworts?

Specialised stomata for exchange of co2 and oxygen and to minimise water loss

18

What are homospores?

Spores of one kind, not differentiated by sex

19

What is zooidogamous?

type of plant reproduction in which male gametes (antherozoids) swim in a film of water to the female gametes (archegonium)

20

What is exoscopic embryogeny?

apex of embryo pointed towards the neck of archegonium

21

How are the spores dispersed?

By wind

22

What are epiphytes?

Can grow on another plant

23

How are bryophytes protected from UV radiation?

Phenoilc compounds

24

Where do bryophytes colonise?

Bare rocks and soil surfaces for trees

25

What happened in the mid ordovician?

First land plants evolve, bryophytes widespread

26

What happened in the early silurian?

Tracheophytes evolve and overtake bryophytes in dominant vegetation

27

What happened in the mid Devonian?

trees and forests evolved, give rise to new habitats for bryophytes to exist

28

How are bryophytes important in the ecosystem?

Reduce the loss of nitrogen, can retain concentration in the soil