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Flashcards in Seed Plants Deck (22)
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1

What are the seed plants?

Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

2

When did they emerge?

360mya in the Permian

3

What is a seed?

Its embryo and food supply, surrounded by a protective coat

4

How have seed plants affected human society?

cultivation of cereal crops and domestication a massive cultural change, transformation to permanent settlers

5

What are the derived traits of seed plants?

Reduced gametophytes, heterospory, ovules, and pollen

6

What is the evolutionary trend in gametophytes?

reduction in size, until microscopic in most seed plants

7

What does a seed allow plants to do?

Reproduce and survive in a broader range of environments

8

Where do gametophytes of seed plants live?

In the sporangia of the sporophyte

9

What benefits come from gametophyte retained in the sporangia?

Moist reproductive tissue shield gametophyte from UV and can obtain nutrients from sporophyte

10

What is heterospory?

Megasporangia produce megaspores which give rise to female gametophytes and microsporangia produce microspores which gives rise to male gametophytes

11

What is the integument?

layer of sporophyte tissue , envelops and protects the megasporangium

12

How many integuments are present in Gymnosperms

1

13

How many integuments are present in angiosperms?

2

14

What is the ovule?

structure comprised of the megasporangium, megaspore and integument

15

What happens inside the ovule?

a female gametophyte develops from a megaspore, and produces the eggs.

16

What does the microspore develop into?

A pollen grain, consisting of male gametophyte enclosed within the pollen wall

17

What is pollination?

The transfer of pollen to the part of a seed plant that contains ovules

18

What happens when the pollen grain germinates?

gives rise to a pollen tube that discharges sperm into the female gametophyte

19

What did the evolution of the seed mean for reproduction?

No dependence on free water, could travel further distances to fertilise

20

What happens after pollen fertilises the female gametophyte?

Ovule develops into a seed

21

How does the seed coat form?

From the integument

22

What are the benefits of the seed having food supply?

Can be dormant for a long time after being released from the parent, and can germinate under favourable conditions with food supply providing critical nutrients for growth