Buddhist Beliefs and Practices Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Buddhist Beliefs and Practices Deck (72):
1

Who is Buddha otherwise known as?

Siddhartha Gautama

2

What is Asceticism?

Living the simplest life you can

3

What is the Middle Way? How did Buddha represent this?

Halfway between a simple life and luxury, represented with a loot

4

Who was Mara?

The evil one who tried to distract Buddha from achieving enlightenment with fear & lust

5

What are the 3 watches of the night?

1. Knowledge of all his previous lives
2. That things were re-born depending on their kamma
3. He understood the causes of suffering and how to overcome it

6

What are the 4 sights?

Sickness, old age, death and a holy man

7

How is buddha's life irrelevant today?

It happened a long time, many of the stories are far-fetched

8

Give 5 ways Buddha's life is significant today

4 sights still occur today, tempting to want luxury, meditate as a way out of suffering, you must find a middle way, even Buddha struggled to reach enlightenment

9

What are the 4 noble truths?

1. Everyone suffers (dukkha)
2. Suffering is caused by desire
3. To overcome suffering we must detach ourselves from desire
4. Follow the eightfold path

10

What is the Threefold Way (+ the different parts of the eightfold path)

Ethics - speech, action, livelihood
Meditation - effort, mindfulness, concentration
Wisdom - understanding, intention

11

What is Dhamma?

Truths about the universe that Buddha discovered by enlightenment (buddhist teachings)

12

What are the Three Refuges / Three Jewels?

Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha

13

What is Sangha?

The whole buddhist community

14

What is Dependent Arising?

Inter-relatedness

15

What is Samsara?

Cycle of birth, death and rebirth

16

What is Nibbana?

Extinguishing the self

17

What are the Three marks of existence?

Dukkha, Anicca, Anatta

18

What is Dukkha?

Suffering

19

What is Anicca?

Impermenance

20

What is Anatta?

The self is not fixed or permanent

21

What are the 5 aggregates?

Form, Sensation, Perception, Mental Formations, Consciousness

22

What is Nagasena's chariot?

The story that the chariot is made up of lots of different materials that are only the chariot for the moment, they can become other things - impermenance

23

What do Theravada Buddhists think of Buddha?

He is not a god, but simply a guide as to how we should live

24

What is an Arhat?

A perfected person who has overcome suffering

25

What aspect do Theravada Buddhists focus on particularly?

Achieving enlightenment in a monastic community, escaping samsara

26

Name 2 branches of Mahayana Buddhists

Zen and Tibetan

27

What do Mahayana Buddhists think of Buddha?

He is still watching over us and interacts with the world,

28

What is Buddha Nature?

Everyone having a seed of Buddha inside

29

What aspect do Mahayana Buddhists focus on particularly?

Becoming a Bodhisattva

30

What is a Bodhisattva?

An enlightened Buddhist who returns to the earth and helps others achieve enlightenment

31

What are the two types of Bodhisattva?

Earthly & Transcendent

32

What are the 6 perfections?

(Attributes Bodhisattvas require) Generosity, Morality, Patience, Energy, Meditation & wisdom

33

Give 3 details about Pure land Buddhism

Mahayana Tradition, Japanese, Based on Amitabha

34

Who was Amitabha?

A transcendent bodhisattva who achieved enlightenment and created the pure land of Sukhavati - there were no distractions and made it easier to achieve enlightenment. Buddhists can get there by chanting his name

35

What is one criticism of Pure Land Buddhism?

It's too easy to achieve enlightenment, you should persist through discipline

36

List 5 things you would find in a Buddhist temple

A main hall, meditation room, stupa, study hall, monastery

37

What is the main feature of a main hall?

A shrine dedicated to Buddha or Bodhisattva with a statue (Buddharupa)

38

What offerings will a Buddhist make to a shrine?

Flowers for impermanance, incense for purity, candle for wisdom

39

What is a Gompa?

Meditation room

40

What is a Stupa/ Pagoda?

Buildings containing holy relics, they have a mound at the bottom representing the earth, towers representing water, fire or air, a spire representing wisdom

41

What is a vihara?

Monastery

42

What is Puja?

Buddhist worship

43

What 3 things do Buddhists do during worship?

Make offerings, chant from texts, recite mantras

44

Why do buddhists chant during worship?

It's an educational tool but also calms the mind

45

Why do buddhists recite mantras during worship?

They represent a particular quality of the Buddha, may invoke the presence of a Bodhisattva

46

Name 3 different types of meditation

Samatha, Vipassana, Visualisation

47

What is Samatha meditation?

focusing on the mindfulness of the body and breath, calming the mind

48

Why may Kasinas be used in meditation?

Help the mind concentrate, they include earth, water, fire and some colour

49

What is Vipassana meditation?

where the mind is calm and you develop the true nature of reality. focus on what is going on at the time. Zen buddhists call this 'zazen'

50

What is visualisation?

Using a kasina that is physically there e.g. a bowl of water to help you focus the mind. Tibetan buddhists visualise Bodhisattvas.

51

What are thankas?

paintings of the buddha

52

What are Mandalas?

Sacred diagrams that represent different aspects of Dhamma. They are often made out of sand then brushed away symbolising impermenance.

53

Why might someone take a Buddhist retreat?

to live with those who share the same faith and understand Buddha's teachings

54

Give 3 things you might do on a Buddhist retreat

Live a simple life, practice meditation, listen to lectures on Buddhist teachings

55

Name 2 Buddhist festivals

Wesak and Parinirvana day

56

What does Wesak celebrate?

Buddhist achieving enlightenment in the full moon

57

Name 2 things Buddhists may do to celebrate Wesak

Decorate homes with candles representing wisdom and hope, releasing birds into the sky

58

What does Parinirvana day celebrate?

Buddha passing into nibbana, Buddhists reflect on their own future death and remember those who have passed. Central focus ins Anicca

59

Name 2 things Buddhists may do to celebrate Parinirvana day

Read passages from the Mahaparinirvana Sutra scripture, take a pilgrimage to Kushinagar where the Buddha died

60

Give 2 details regarding Theravada funerals

Money given to charity leading to a favorable rebirth, Flowers given to the shrine representing Anicca

61

Give 2 details regarding Mahayana funerals

Tibetans favour sky burials as a gift to the vultures representing dependent arising & impermenance, significant buddhists cremated and put in a stupa

62

What is Kamma?

The law of consequences

63

What are skilful actions?

Actions rooted in generosity, compassion and understanding

64

What are the 3 poisons?

Ignorance, greed & hate

65

What are unskilful actions?

Actions rooted in ignorance, greed & hate

66

Why is Kamma significant to Buddhists?

We bring consequences upon ourselves, we can change the future through our actions

67

What is Karuna?

Compassion, wanting others to be free of suffering

68

How did Buddha display Karuna?

By telling everyone how he achieved enlightenmet

69

What is Karuna paired with?

Wisdom

70

What is ROKPA?

A buddhist charity that sets up schools in LEDCs because education is the first step in escaping the poverty cycle

71

What is Metta?

Loving Kindness to all, practiced through loving kindness meditation (e.g. imagining others happy)

72

What are the 5 moral precepts?

1. To abstain from taking life
2. To abstain from taking what is not freely given
3. To abstain from the misuse of senses
4. To abstain from wrong speech
5. To abstain from intoxicants that cloud the mind