Flashcards in Buddhist Beliefs and Practices Deck (72):
Who is Buddha otherwise known as?
What is Asceticism?
Living the simplest life you can
What is the Middle Way? How did Buddha represent this?
Halfway between a simple life and luxury, represented with a loot
Who was Mara?
The evil one who tried to distract Buddha from achieving enlightenment with fear & lust
What are the 3 watches of the night?
1. Knowledge of all his previous lives
2. That things were re-born depending on their kamma
3. He understood the causes of suffering and how to overcome it
What are the 4 sights?
Sickness, old age, death and a holy man
How is buddha's life irrelevant today?
It happened a long time, many of the stories are far-fetched
Give 5 ways Buddha's life is significant today
4 sights still occur today, tempting to want luxury, meditate as a way out of suffering, you must find a middle way, even Buddha struggled to reach enlightenment
What are the 4 noble truths?
1. Everyone suffers (dukkha)
2. Suffering is caused by desire
3. To overcome suffering we must detach ourselves from desire
4. Follow the eightfold path
What is the Threefold Way (+ the different parts of the eightfold path)
Ethics - speech, action, livelihood
Meditation - effort, mindfulness, concentration
Wisdom - understanding, intention
What is Dhamma?
Truths about the universe that Buddha discovered by enlightenment (buddhist teachings)
What are the Three Refuges / Three Jewels?
Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha
What is Sangha?
The whole buddhist community
What is Dependent Arising?
What is Samsara?
Cycle of birth, death and rebirth
What is Nibbana?
Extinguishing the self
What are the Three marks of existence?
Dukkha, Anicca, Anatta
What is Dukkha?
What is Anicca?
What is Anatta?
The self is not fixed or permanent
What are the 5 aggregates?
Form, Sensation, Perception, Mental Formations, Consciousness
What is Nagasena's chariot?
The story that the chariot is made up of lots of different materials that are only the chariot for the moment, they can become other things - impermenance
What do Theravada Buddhists think of Buddha?
He is not a god, but simply a guide as to how we should live
What is an Arhat?
A perfected person who has overcome suffering
What aspect do Theravada Buddhists focus on particularly?
Achieving enlightenment in a monastic community, escaping samsara
Name 2 branches of Mahayana Buddhists
Zen and Tibetan
What do Mahayana Buddhists think of Buddha?
He is still watching over us and interacts with the world,
What is Buddha Nature?
Everyone having a seed of Buddha inside
What aspect do Mahayana Buddhists focus on particularly?
Becoming a Bodhisattva
What is a Bodhisattva?
An enlightened Buddhist who returns to the earth and helps others achieve enlightenment
What are the two types of Bodhisattva?
Earthly & Transcendent
What are the 6 perfections?
(Attributes Bodhisattvas require) Generosity, Morality, Patience, Energy, Meditation & wisdom
Give 3 details about Pure land Buddhism
Mahayana Tradition, Japanese, Based on Amitabha
Who was Amitabha?
A transcendent bodhisattva who achieved enlightenment and created the pure land of Sukhavati - there were no distractions and made it easier to achieve enlightenment. Buddhists can get there by chanting his name
What is one criticism of Pure Land Buddhism?
It's too easy to achieve enlightenment, you should persist through discipline
List 5 things you would find in a Buddhist temple
A main hall, meditation room, stupa, study hall, monastery
What is the main feature of a main hall?
A shrine dedicated to Buddha or Bodhisattva with a statue (Buddharupa)
What offerings will a Buddhist make to a shrine?
Flowers for impermanance, incense for purity, candle for wisdom
What is a Gompa?
What is a Stupa/ Pagoda?
Buildings containing holy relics, they have a mound at the bottom representing the earth, towers representing water, fire or air, a spire representing wisdom
What is a vihara?
What is Puja?
What 3 things do Buddhists do during worship?
Make offerings, chant from texts, recite mantras
Why do buddhists chant during worship?
It's an educational tool but also calms the mind
Why do buddhists recite mantras during worship?
They represent a particular quality of the Buddha, may invoke the presence of a Bodhisattva
Name 3 different types of meditation
Samatha, Vipassana, Visualisation
What is Samatha meditation?
focusing on the mindfulness of the body and breath, calming the mind
Why may Kasinas be used in meditation?
Help the mind concentrate, they include earth, water, fire and some colour
What is Vipassana meditation?
where the mind is calm and you develop the true nature of reality. focus on what is going on at the time. Zen buddhists call this 'zazen'
What is visualisation?
Using a kasina that is physically there e.g. a bowl of water to help you focus the mind. Tibetan buddhists visualise Bodhisattvas.
What are thankas?
paintings of the buddha
What are Mandalas?
Sacred diagrams that represent different aspects of Dhamma. They are often made out of sand then brushed away symbolising impermenance.
Why might someone take a Buddhist retreat?
to live with those who share the same faith and understand Buddha's teachings
Give 3 things you might do on a Buddhist retreat
Live a simple life, practice meditation, listen to lectures on Buddhist teachings
Name 2 Buddhist festivals
Wesak and Parinirvana day
What does Wesak celebrate?
Buddhist achieving enlightenment in the full moon
Name 2 things Buddhists may do to celebrate Wesak
Decorate homes with candles representing wisdom and hope, releasing birds into the sky
What does Parinirvana day celebrate?
Buddha passing into nibbana, Buddhists reflect on their own future death and remember those who have passed. Central focus ins Anicca
Name 2 things Buddhists may do to celebrate Parinirvana day
Read passages from the Mahaparinirvana Sutra scripture, take a pilgrimage to Kushinagar where the Buddha died
Give 2 details regarding Theravada funerals
Money given to charity leading to a favorable rebirth, Flowers given to the shrine representing Anicca
Give 2 details regarding Mahayana funerals
Tibetans favour sky burials as a gift to the vultures representing dependent arising & impermenance, significant buddhists cremated and put in a stupa
What is Kamma?
The law of consequences
What are skilful actions?
Actions rooted in generosity, compassion and understanding
What are the 3 poisons?
Ignorance, greed & hate
What are unskilful actions?
Actions rooted in ignorance, greed & hate
Why is Kamma significant to Buddhists?
We bring consequences upon ourselves, we can change the future through our actions
What is Karuna?
Compassion, wanting others to be free of suffering
How did Buddha display Karuna?
By telling everyone how he achieved enlightenmet
What is Karuna paired with?
What is ROKPA?
A buddhist charity that sets up schools in LEDCs because education is the first step in escaping the poverty cycle
What is Metta?
Loving Kindness to all, practiced through loving kindness meditation (e.g. imagining others happy)