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Flashcards in Buzzwords Deck (47):
0

Stony dull to percuss

Pleural effusion

1

Right sided pleuritic chest pain

Most likely pneumonia

2

Alveolar bat's wings, Kerley B lines, Cardiomegaly, Dilated Prominent upper lobe vessels, pleural Effusion (A, B, C, D, E)

Pulmonary oedema

3

Ground-glass appearance on X-ray

Pulmonary fibrosis and respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn

4

Ziehl-Neelson stain positive for acid fast bacilli

TB

5

Caseous necrosis

TB

6

Apical disease

Most likely (secondary) TB; apical lesions is called an Assmann focus!

7

Miliary Tuberculosis

Spread of organism into the bloodstream. If organism spread via pulmonary artery, miliary dessemination into the lung occurs. If organims spread via pulmonary vein, there is systemic dissemination to the liver, spleen and kidneys

8

Positive anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies

Goodpasture's syndrome

9

Chest infection with a parrot/pigeon as pet

Caused by chlamydophila psittaci

10

Dry cough and diarrhoea after holiday abroad, some indication of water spread

Legionella pneumophila (test urine for antigens)

11

Tall, thin young man who indulges in marijuana

Probably pneumothorax (Marfan's)

12

Bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, erythema nodosum, granulomas, fatigue, uveitis and weight loss

Sarcoidosis

13

Bronchiole wider than neighbouring arteriole (on CT) (signet ring sign)

Bronchiectasis

14

D sign on X-ray

Empyema

15

Steeple sign on X-ray

Laryngotracheobronchitis/croup

16

Child with barking cough

Croup

17

Pneumocystis pneumonia

HIV (treat with co-tramoxazole [+/- prednisolone if severe])

18

Asthma + nasal polyps + salicylate sensitivity

Samter's triad

19

Alcoholic (danger of aspiration pneumonia)

Klebsiella pneumoniae

20

Red jelly sputum

Klebsiella pneumoniae

21

Mucoid sputum

Chlamydia psittaci

22

Rusty sputum

Pneumococcal pneumonia

23

Cannonball metastases (also weight loss and haematuria)

Classically from primary renal cell carcinoma

24

Morning headache

Hypercapnia or side effects of organic nitrates

25

ACTH secreting lung tumour

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

26

PTH secreting lung tumour

Squamous cell carcinoma of lung

27

Small-cell carcinoma

Neuroendocrine, highly malignant and may be associated with ectopic endocrine syndromes

28

Increased serum ACE and Ca2+

Sarcoid

29

Eggshell calcification at hilar regions

Silicosis

30

Heart-failure cells seen in alveolar spaces

Macrophages that have absorbed haemosiderin - found in chronic pulmonary oedema and associated (severe) left-ventricular heart failure. Also seen in long-standing pulmonary hypertension

31

Ghon focus

An area of infection and caseous necrosis at the periphery of the lung, beneath the pleura - found in tuberculosis infection. Note: Ghon focus rupture (rare) through the visceral pleura into the pleural cavity will produce tuberculosis pleurisy.

32

Assmann focus

Apical lesion of secondary tuberculosis infection

33

Coin lesion found on chest radiographs

A rounded solitary lesion. The common lesions are: primary bronchial or lung carcinoma, metastatic tumour (especially of kidney), bronchial hamartoma, carcinoid tumour, granulomatous inflammation, lung abscess.

34

Horner's syndrome

Can occur when there is a local spread of cancer to the intrathoracic nodes or a Pancoast's tumour. Signs include: ptosis (drooping of the eyelid), enophthalmos (sunken eye), miosis (small pupil), and lack of sweating on the ipsilateral (same side as invasion) side of face. This is due to invasion of the cervical sympathetic chain.

35

Acute management of asthma: OSHIT MAN

Oxygen 100% through a non-rebreather mask
Salbutamol nebulised back-to-back
Hydrocortisone IV or prednisolone PO
Ipratropium Bromide nebulised hourly
Theophylline IV or aminiophylline IV
Magnesium and call an
Anaesthetist

36

Thumbprint sign on head x-ray

Epiglottitis

37

Inspiratory whoop/barking cough

Pertussis

38

Snow storm appearance on x-ray

Baritosis, silicosis

39

Management of infective exacerbation of COPD: iSOAP

i - ipratropium
S - Salbutamol
O - Oxygen
A - Amoxicillin
P - Prednisolone

40

Non-smoker and lung cancer =

Peripheral adenocarcinoma

41

Squamous and small-cell lung cancers =

CENTRAL

42

High d-dimers

Suspect (but not diagnose) pulmonary embolism (send for CTPA or V/Q scan)

43

Low d-dimers

Exclude pulmonary embolism

44

Large PE

Thrombolysis

45

Small PE

Low molecular weight heparin

46

PE risk factors (8 H's)

Hereditary e.g. factor V Leiden
History - previous DVT or PE
Hypomobility e.g. fracture or long trip
Hypovolaemia e.g. dehydration
Hypercoaguability e.g. smoking
Hormones e.g. Oestrogen
Hyperhomocysteinemia
Hyperviscosity states e.g. malignancy , post surgery