Flashcards in Respiratory Disease in Childhood Deck (35):
What does a lack of surfactant result in?
Atelectasis and impairment of gas exchange
What is the production of surfactant stimulated by?
Respiratory distress syndrome is predominantly in preterm, what relationship does it have with gestation?
What is there an increased incidence with IPPV, CPAP and ventilation?
What is the condition named where oxygen requirement is beyond 36 weeks corrected gestation plus evidence of pulmonary parenchymal disease onCXR?
Chronic lung disease
What does chronic lung disease generally follow?
What does a diaphragmatic hernia have associated with it=?
Where are the two most common diaphragmatic hernias located?
Posterolateral (Bochdalek), left-sided
A 1 year old child presents with a prolonged history of cough, loose stools and failure to thrive - diagnosis?
Anewborn infant with a raised immuno-reactive trypsin level on neonatal screening who is also found to be homozygous for the F508 deletion - diagnosis?
Name a respiratory disease in childhood and adulthood that is autosomal recessive?
What is the carrier incidence like for CF?
1 in 24 people
In CF what gene are the mutations found in?
Is CF a multisystem disorder?
Give 4 differential diagnosises for CF?
1. Immune deficiency
2. Ciliary dyskinesia
4. Kartagener's immotile cilia syndrome - rare
A 7-year child presents with 3-month history of cough worse at night or during active play - diagnosis?
What are the 4 clinical features that increase the probability of a child having asthma (SIGN guidline)?
1. One or more: wheeze, cough, chest tightness, difficulty breathing
2. Atopy (personal or family history)
3. Widespread wheeze on auscultation
4. Response to Rx
What are the 4 stages of asthma management in children?
1. Treat with inhaled beta-agonist when needed
2. Treat with regular inhaled steroids
3. Regular inhaled steroids + long acting beta agonists
4. Stage 3 + leukotriene antagonists
What 2 features can passive smoking cause on a baby?
Teratogenic: airways, cleft lip/palate
7 steps of treatment for acute asthma in children.
2. Nebulised bronchodilator
3. Oral prednisolone
4. IV salbutamol
5. IV aminophylline
6. IV magnesium
7. Ventilatory support
6 week old presented with increased work of breathing and possible apnoes, URTI symptoms over last 2 days - diagnosis?
What are the three common viral infections that cause bronchiolitis in children?
Three clinical features of bronchiolitis in children?
10 year old girl with cough, high fever and sputum production. Previously very well. Clinical examination: dullness on percussion, increased vocal fremitus and resonance, bronchial breathing - diagnosis?
4 causes of pneumonia in neonates?
2 causes of pneumonia in infants?
What child age do these cause pneumonia commonly in - Strep pneumoniae, Staph aureus, Gr A strep, Bordetella, Mycoplasma, Legionella?
School age children
Give 5 differential diagnosis for: 2 year old child presenting with barking cough and difficulty in breathing of sudden onset.
Inhaled foreign body
Epiglottitis and bacterial tracheitis
What does a classic steeple sign with narrowing of the tracheal air column at the larynx and distension of the hypopharynx suggest?
What condition is caused by viral laryngotracheobronchitis?
What two clinical features are seen with croup?
Barking cough and stridor
What is the treatment for croup?
Oral steroid to reduce inflamamtion
9 month old infant from developing country with irratability, neck rigitity and afebrile - diagnosis?
5 common respiratory problems in children - beginning with "C"?
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia