Pulmonary Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pulmonary Pathology Deck (16):
1

What is the term for a type of COPD that involves small airway inflammation?

Respiratory bronchiolitis

2

To be diagnosed with chronic bronchitis for how long must you have had a cough productive of sputum for?

On most days for 3 months of at least 2 successive years

3

In chronic bronchitis, what cells increase in numbers?

Epithelial cells, especially goblet cells

4

What may generate functional obstruction in respiratory bronchiolitis?

Goblet cell metaplasia, macrophage accumulation and fibrosis around bronchioles

5

What is the name for an increase beyond the normal in the size of the airspaces distal to the terminal bronchiole?

Emphysema

6

What are the three types of emphysema?

Centriacinar (centrilobular)
Panacinar
Others (e.g. localised around scars in the lung)

7

In emphysema, what does the loss of elastic recoil and support of small airways lead to?

Tendency to collapse with obstruction

8

As emphysema advances the PaO2 decreases, what two clinical problems does this lead to?

1. Dyspnoea and increased RR
2. Pulmonary vasoconstriction (and pulmonary hypertension)

9

What rare genetic condition is there a high rate of emphysema in?

Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency

10

What does anti-1-trypsin deficiency involve in its pathophysiology?

The protease/antiprotease hypothesis

11

Name enzymes which are produced by neutrophils and macrophages and can damage elastic tissue?

Elastases

12

What does alpha-1-antitrypsin act as?

Anti-elastase

13

What does tobacco smoke increase in the lung?

Number of macrophages and neutrophils
Increases neutrophil degranulation

14

What does tobacco smoke inhibit?

Alpha-1-antitrpysin

15

Give 4 pathology features of asthma

1. Narrowed oedematous airways
2. Mucus plugs
3. Inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils)
4. Epithelial cell damage

16

What are 4 causes of airway narrowing/obstruction?

1. Muscle spasm
2. Mucosal oedema (inflammatory or otherwise)
3. Airway collapse due to loss of support
4. Localised obstruction due to tumour or foreign body