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3rd Year General Revision > Buzzwords > Flashcards

Flashcards in Buzzwords Deck (192):
1

Inflammatory myopathy with poor response to steroids

Inclusion body myositis

2

Leg symptoms and midline shift

Falcine herniation

3

Back pain worse on coughing

Slipped disc

4

Headache worse on coughing

Posterior fossa issue

5

Pleocytosis on CSF

Rules out bacterial meningitis (pleocytosis = increase in lymphocytes)

6

Migraine prophylaxis

1st line: propanolol, topiramate or amitryptiline

2nd line: valproate, pizotifen, gabapentin or pregabalin (if one drug does not work by 3/12, try another)

7

Injury to the upper brachial plexus

Erb's palsy (waiters tip)
More common, associated with shoulder dystocia)

8

Injury to lower brachial plexus

Klumpke's palsy (claw hand)

9

+ve simmonds test

Achilles tendon rupture

10

Anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody

Myasthenia gravis

11

Mesocortical dopamine hypoactivity

Negative and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia

12

Subcortical dopamine hyperactivity

Psychosis

13

Tuberoinfundibular dopamine pathway

Prolactin release

14

Nigrostriatal dopamine pathway

Extra pyramidal movements

15

Subcortical and mesocortical dopamine pathways

(sometimes known as mesolimbic system)
Motivation and reward

16

What is the mesolimbic system responsible for?

Motivation and reward

17

Mesolimbic DA blocakde

Depression

18

Mesolimbic DA agonism

Psychosis

19

Drugs which cause weight gain

Olanzapine and clozapine cause loads of weight gain

20

When can you prescribe clozapine?

Need to have tried 2 other drugs and be a consultant to prescribe it

21

Limbic system functions?

M2OVE
Motivation
Memory
Olfaction
Visceral afferents
Emotion

22

Brain changes in schizophrenia

Reduced frontal lobe volume (and grey matter)
Enlarged lateral ventricles
Reduced grey matter in the TEMPORAL CORTEX

23

Pressure of thought: varied ideas in abundance

Characteristic in mania but can be seen in schizphrenia

24

Flight of ideas and knights move thinking

Quickly moving from one topic to another but there is a link, unlike knights move thinking where there does not appear to be a link between point A and point B
-seen in bipolar in manic phase

25

Treatment for EPSE

Procyclidine

26

Involved in normal response to threat

Amygdala

27

What does the PFC do?

Dampens down amygdala response to threat (fewer connections = less effective)

28

Management of OCD

1) SSRI
2) SSRI
3) TCA or SSRI
4) SSRI or TCA (TCA used is chlomipromine) so essentially an SSRI
If there is a partial response at any time of those points, consider CBT as an adjunct

29

Becks triad

Negative feelings about self, world and future

30

Problems with NMDA antagonists

Produce psychotic symptoms

31

NMDA receptor antagonists

Ketamine
Dextromethorphan
Phencyclidine

(remember these can produce psychotic symptoms)

32

Alcohol withdrawal

Use chlordiazepoxide
(30mg qds, 25mg qds, 20mg qds, 15mg qds, 10mg qds, 10mg tds, 10mg bd, 10mg OD nocte)

33

Eosinophilic inclusions

Lewy bodies (LBD and PD)

34

What could trigger a hypertensive crisis with MAOIs

Interactions with tyramine containing foods, nasal congestants, TCA's, pethidine

35

How do you treat hypertensive crisis?

Phentolamine infusion

36

Which patient should you avoid TCA's in?

Patients with cardiac problems or patients with suicidal intent

37

Cherry red spot on macula

Central retinal artery occlusion

38

Tear drops or blood level in sinus

Blow out fracture

39

Failure to adduct

Internuclear opthalmoplegia - issue with medial longitudinal fasciculus

40

Pain on movement

Optic neuritis, most commonly caused by MS

41

Painful loss of vision at 1ks

Optic neuritis

42

Curtain coming down

Amurosis fugax

43

Curtain coming down (partial) longer than five minutes

Retinal detachment

44

Flashes and floaters

Retinal detachment

45

Photophobia

Anterior uveitis

46

Gritty eyes

Bacterial conjunctivitis or sub-tarsal foreign body

47

Watery and pain and preaurciular lymph nodes

Viral conjunctivitis

48

Silver/copper wiring

HTN eye disease

49

Loss of red reflex, red eye on opthalmoscopy

Haemorrhage

50

New vessels and haemorrhage

Wet ARMD

51

Follicular conjunctivits

Chlamydia

52

Pinpoint pupils

Pontine issue

53

Dilated pupils

Trans-calcarine fracture

54

Different sized pupils

Damage to CN III (or sympathetic chain in horners)

55

Down and out, not dilated

Diabetes

56

Down and out, dilated

CNIII damage

57

Roth spots

Infective endocarditis

58

Brushfield spots

Down syndrome

59

Scrambled egg / egg yolk appearance of macula

Best disease

60

Antepartum haemorrhage in patient with succenturiate lobe or velamentous inseration

Vasa praevia

61

Maternal blood and no fetal distress

Placenta praevia
MUST BE EXCLUDED BEFORE VAGINAL EXAMINATION

62

Fetal blood and sudden fetal distress

Vasa praevia

63

Placenta accreta "doughy abdomen"

Insertion into myometrium post endometrial ablation --> C section and hysterectomy - always give contraception!

64

Fetal distress and loss of engagement, previous C section or surgery

Uterine rupture

65

PPH followed by pituitary failure

Sheehan's syndrome

66

Strawberry cervic

Trichomonas vaginalis

67

Prolapse and back pain

Uterine prolapse

68

Large tense uterus "woody abdomen", bleeding and pain

Placental abruption

69

"fluid level behind drum" "retracted drum", "dull colour"

Otitis media with effusion

70

Loss of corneal reflex (+ sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo and tinnitus)

Acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma)
Associated with NFII

71

Battle sign

Mastoid process of temporal bone fractures

72

Pearly white on otoscopy and foul, cheesy discharge

Cholesteatoma

73

Saddle nose

Wegeners

74

ADHD triad

Hyperactive
Inattention
Impulsive

75

Treatment for ADHD

Methylphenidate

76

Triad of autism

Social communication, language, repetitive behaviour

77

What is aspergers

Form of autism where there is only a problem with social communication

78

Statin interacts with ...

Grapefruit juice

79

Metronidazole interacts with ...

ALCOHOL !!

80

Warfarin interacts with ...

Grapefruit juice

81

Calcium and thyroxine leads to what?

Decrease absorption from GIT

82

Warfarin and NSAID

Bleed

83

ACEi and spironolactone

Hyperkalaemia

84

Digoxin and verapamil

Digoxin toxicity

85

Fluoxetine and phelezine

Serotonin syndrome

86

When are triptans contraindicated?

In IHD, uncontrolled hypertension, concurrent use of LITHIUM, SSRI or ergot derivative drugs (such as cabergoline in PD)

87

"stuck on" appearance

Basal cell papilloma (seborrhoaic keratosis)

88

Picket fence pearly border

Basal cell carinoma

89

Dermatitis herpetiformis

Coeliac disease

90

Erythema nodosum

Commonly sarcoidosis, also UC and TB

91

Erythema bullseye lesion

Erythema migrans --> lime disease

92

Silver scales, extensor surfaces

Psoriasis

93

Cauliflower appearance

Plantar warts

94

Flaccid blisters that can be burst easily to form erythematous erosions

Pemphigus vulgaris

95

Large tense bullae that cannot be burst

Bullous pemphigoid

96

Heliotrope rash and scaly knuckles

Dermatomyositis

97

Fish scale skin

Ichthyosis

98

Schistocytes

Intravascular haemolysis

99

Pepper pot skull

Myeloma

100

Reed sternberg cells

Hodgkin's lymphoma

101

9:22 location

Philadelphia chromosome (CML)

102

Atypical lymphocytes

EBV (mononucleosis)

103

Auer rods

Acute myeloid leukaemia

104

Itchy after a hot bath

Polycythemia rubra vera

105

Translocation 8:14

Burkitt's lymphoma

106

African kid with a history of EBV and tumour in face/jaws

Burkitt's lymphoma

107

Haemarthrosis

Hodgkin's lymphoma

108

Bleeding into joint

Problem with seconday haemarthrosis

109

Young boy with reduced levels of factor VIII and an increased APTT

Haemophilia A

110

Reduced levels of factor IX with Christmas disease

Haemophilia B

111

Patient has fever and pleuritic chest pain that is relieved by sitting up and leaning forward

Pericarditis

112

ECG saw tooth baseline + 150 bpm

Atrial flutter

113

Raised JVP / hepatojugular

Right-sided heart failure

114

Saddle shaped ST elevation

Pericarditis

115

Broad complex tachycardia

Ventricular problem

116

Mid diastolic murmur with a tapping, undisplaced apex

Mitral stenosis

117

Broad QRS with slurred upstroke on R wave (delta wave)

Wolff parkinson white syndrome

118

Patient gets pericarditis 4-6 weeks post MI

Dressler's syndrome

119

Blurred yellow vision headache

Digoxin toxicity

120

Crescendo decrescendo murmur

Aortic stenosis

121

Systolic murmur, radiates to the neck

Aortic stenosis

122

Ground glass appearance on x-ray

Pulmonary fibrosis and respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn

123

Miliary TB spread through pulmonary artery

Dissemination in lungs

124

Miliary TB spread through pulmonary vein

Dissemination to liver, spleen and kidneys

125

Positive anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies

Goodpastures

126

Tall, thin young man who indulges in marijuana

Pneumothorax

127

Bronchiolar wider than neighbouring arteriole (on CT) (signet ring sign)

Bronchiectasis

128

D sign on x-ray

Empyema

129

"Steeple" sign on x-ray

Laryngotracheobronchitis / croup

130

Pneumocystis pneumonia

HIV (treat with co-trimoxazole [and prednisolone if severe])

131

Klebsiella pneumonia

Alcoholic/danger of aspiration pneumonia

132

Mucoid sputum

Chlamydia psittaci

133

Red jelly sputum

Klebsiella pneumonia

134

Rusty sputum

Pneumococal pneumonia

135

Morning headache

Hpercapnia or side effects of organic nitrates

136

ACTH secreting lung tumour

SMALL CELL CARCINOMA

137

PTH secreting lung tumour

SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

138

Increased ACE and Ca2+

Sarcoid

139

Neuroendocrine, highly malignant and may be associated with ectopic endocrine syndromes

Small cell carcinoma

140

Egg shell calcification at hilar regions

Silicosis

141

"heart failure cells" seen in alveolar spaces

Macrophages that have absorbed haemosiderin - found in chronic pulmonary oedema and associated (severe) left ventricular hypertrophy
Also seen in long standing pulmonary hypertension

142

Ghon focus

Area of infection and caseous necrosis at the periphery of the lung, beneath the pleura - found in TB infection

143

Assman focus

Apical lesion of secondary tuberculosis infection

144

Bird beak appearance (and distended oesophagus)

Achalasia; if in lower GI imaging, is a sign of bowel obstruction

145

GET SMASHED

Acute pancreatitis causes:
Gallstones
Ethanol
Trauma
Steroids
Mumps
Autoimmune
Scorpion bites/stings
Hyperlipidemia/hyperthermia/hypercalcemia
ERCP
Drugs

146

Murphy's sign positive

Cholecystitis

147

Pale stools, jaundice, abdo pain

Biliary obstruction

148

Pyoderma gangrenosum, erythema nodosum

Crohn's/UC

149

Tinkling bowel sounds

Bowel obstruction

150

Vesicular rash and weight loss

Crohn's

151

Urea breath test

H pylori

152

13 C breath test

Bacterial overgrowth

153

Rice water like stools

Vibrio cholera

154

AMA

Primary biliary cirrhosis

155

ASMA

Autoimmune hepatitis

156

Alpha feto protein assay

Hepatocellular carcinoma (or teratoma)

157

Diuretic for ascites (due to cirrhosis)

Spironolactona

158

Corkscrew oesophagus on barium swallow

Diffuse oesophageal spasm

159

Severe abdo pain and diarrhoea after raw milk

Campylobacter

160

Russels sign

Self induced vomitting

161

Mallory hyalins bodies

Alcoholic liver disease (acute hepatitis) and chronic active hepatitis

162

Onion skinning fibrosis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis

163

Thumb printing on x-ray, commonly seen at splenic flexure

Ischaemic colitis

164

Charcots triad

Acute cholangitis i.e.
Fever, jaundice and abodminal pain

165

Increased shoe size, spade hands, wedding ring too tight

Acromegaly

166

Signs of hyperthyroidism plus any eye changes, gritty eyes, smooth velvety skin

Graves disease

167

Orphan annie nuclei

Papillary thyroid cancer

168

Anosmia and GnRH deficiency

Kallmann syndrome

169

Troussea sign, chvostek sign and QT prolongation on ECG

Hypocalcemia

170

Brachydactyly of 4th metacarpal

Pseudohypoparathyroidism

171

Wrist drop

Radial nerve palsy

172

Dinner fork or swan's neck deformity

Displaced colles fracture

173

Feels like walking on pebbles

Advanced rheumatoid arthritis in the feet- subluxation of the metatarsophalangeal joints

174

Hanging rope sign

AVN

175

Positive anterior drawer test

ACL tear/rupture

176

Pain in internal rotation and extension of the knee at ninety degrees

Lateral meniscus tear

177

Dry eyes, mouth, vagina, bronchitis

Sicca syndrome

178

Locked knee

Bucket handle/meniscal tear

179

Shortened led and externally rotated

Displaced fracture neck of femur

180

Shortened leg and internally rotated

Dislocated femoral head

181

Onion peel sign

Ewing's sarcoma

182

Sunray spiculation

Osteosarcoma

183

Popcorn calcifiaction

Chondrosarcoma

184

Soap bubble appearace

Giant cell tumour (benign)

185

Rosary bead sign

Polyarteritis nodosa

186

Sea anenoma

Transitional cell carcinoma on cystoscopy

187

UTI and travel to india

Carbapenase-producing klebsiella (resistant to all antibiotics)

188

UTI with foul smelling urine and renal calculi

Proteus

189

Bleeding of renal artery

Fibromuscular dysplasia

190

RBC casts in urine

Proves haematuria is glomerular

191

Muddy brown casts of epithelial cells

Acute tubular necrosis

192

Potato appearance

Testicular seminoma