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3rd Year General Revision > Pass > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pass Deck (29):
1

Normal collagen in the palmar fascia

Type 1

2

Collagen in dupuytrens contracture?

Type 3

3

What is erbs palsy? Which trunks are usually involved?

Paralysis of the arm caused by injuries to the brachial plexus
-particularly damage to C5 and C6 trunks

4

What is erbs palsy associated with?

Commonly associated with schoulder dystocia during difficult labour

5

Erbs palsy

Waiter's tip

6

Klmupke's palsy

Handbag

7

Which nerve is involved in wrist drop and what injuries could cause it?

-Radial nerve palsy
-It can occur in patients with stab wounds in the chest and fractures of the humerus

8

Examination findings of Charcot Marie Tooth (hereditary sensorimotor polyneuropathy)?

Foot drop
Pescavus
Scoliosis
Stamping gait

Often have a strong family history

9

This tract connects the primary motor cortex with the alpha motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord

Corticospinal tract

10

Lesions in the corticospinal tract cause UMN or LMN lesions?

UMN

(LMN lesions are lesions of the alpha motor neurones, not this tract)

11

Plexiform neuroma symtpoms?

LMN

12

Mononeuritis multiplex symptoms?

LMN

13

Vagus nerve palsy

Palatal weakness (this causes 'nasal speech')
Loss of reflex contraction of the palate in the gag reflex
Hoarseness of the voice (in a unilateral laryngeal lesion)
Bovine cough (with a bilateral recurrent nerve lesion)

14

The 4 T's that can cause PPH

Tone
Tissue (retained placenta)
Trauma
Thrombin (coagulation abnormalities)

15

Most common cause of PPH?

Uterine atony (accounts for 90% of cases)

16

What defines a PPH?

Blood loss more than 500mls

17

Which vitamin can be teratogenic in high doses?

Vitamin A

18

Key clinical feature of placenta praevia?

Painless (often bright red) bleeding after 24 weeks

19

Eclampsia seizure management

IV magnesium sulphate, 4g over 5-10 minutes
Followed by infusion of 1g/hour

Urine output, reflexes, respiratory rate and oxygen saturations should be monitored during treatment

Treatment should continue for at least 24 hours after last seizure or delivery

Other important aspects of treating severe pre-eclampsia include fluid restriction to avoid the potentially serious consequences of fluid overload

20

Why should you avoid cooked liver in pregnancy?

Contains high levels of vitamin A

21

Definition of puerperal pyrexia?

Temperature of >38 degrees C in the first 14 days following delivery

22

Most common cause of puerperal pyrexia?

Endometritis

23

Management of endometritis?

Patient should be referred to hospital for IV antibiotics (clindamycin and gentamicin) until afebrile for greater then 24 hours

24

Pleocytosis with "tumbling motility" on wet mounts

Listeria infection

25

Diagnosis of listeria infection?

Diagnosis can ONLY be made from blood cultures

26

Treatment of listeria

Amoxicillin

27

Which UTI antibiotic should be avoided in the first trimester and why?

Trimethoprim (should be avoided as it is a folate antagonist)

28

When do you avoid nitrofurantoin in pregnancy and why?

Avoid close to term (due to risk of causing neonatal haemolysis)

29

Signs of labour

Regular and painful uterine contractions

A show (shedding of mucous plug)

Rupture of the membranes (not always)

Shortening and dilation of the cervix