Neuroanatomy Flashcards Preview

3rd Year General Revision > Neuroanatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neuroanatomy Deck (26):
1

Telencephalon

Cerebral hemispheres

2

Diencephalon

Thalamus
Hypothalamus

3

Mesencephalon

Midbrain

4

Metencephalon

Pons, cerebellum

5

Myelencephalon

Medulla oblongata

6

Role in support, maintaining the BBB, environmental homeostasis

Astrocytes

7

Importance of the insula

Experience of pain

8

Importance of the jugular foramen in terms of venous drainage of the brain?

At the jugular foramen:
-The dural venous sinuses drain into the internal jugular vein

9

What suspends the spinal cord in the canal?

The denticulate ligament

10

What vertebrae have lateral horns? and what are they for?

T1-L2 have lateral horns
They are for the preganglionic sympathetic neurons

11

Blood supply to the spinal cord

-3 major longitudinal arteries (from the vertebral arteries)
-segmental arteries (from the vertebral, intercostal and lumbar arteries)
-Radiuclar arteries (travel along dorsal and ventral roots)

12

What is the epidural space and what does it contain?

Space between the dura and bone
-contains adipose tissue and the anterior and posterior venus plexuses

13

Where are the anterior and posterior venous plexuses?

In the epidural space

14

Where do fibres from the dorsal column/medial lemniscus cross?

The medulla

(synapse in the thalamus)

15

Where do the spinothalamic tracts cross?

Segmentally


(synapse in the thalamus)

16

Spinothalamic tracts?

Pain, temperature and deep pressure

17

Difference between the lateral and ventral corticospinal tracts?

Lateral cross at the medulla (85% and this is the decussation of the pyramids)

Ventral cross segmentally (about 15%)

18

What does the corticospinal tract control?

Fine, precise movements of the distal limb muscles

19

What happens if you get a CVA of the internal capsule? I.e. which tract is defo going to be affected and what would the symptoms be?

A CVA of the internal capsule can ruin your corticospinal tract
-this results in spastic paralysis with hyperflexion of the upper limbs a.k.a DECORTICATE posturing!

(problems with the cerebral hemisphere could also cause this)

20

What posture would problems with the midbrain/pons cause?

Decerebrate

21

What does the tectospinal tract do?

-Inputs mostly to the cervical segments
-thought to mediate reflex head and neck movment due to visual stimuli

22

What do the reticulospinal tracts do?

Tonnes of stuff including influencing voluntary movement

23

Function of the pontine reticulospinal tract?

Facilitate extensor movments

24

Function of the lateral reticulospinal tract?

Facilitate flexor movments

25

Function of the vestibulospinal tract pathway?

Excitatory to "anti-gravity" muscles

26

Problems with the vestibulospinal tract?

Decerebrate posture!
(leads to lots of extension so 'hyperextended spastic paralysis')