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What are non renewable fuels?

Fuels which take a very long time to make and are used up faster than they are formed


What is a finite resource?

They are no longer being made or being made extremely slowly


What are the problems with crude oil being finite?

1) all the readily extractable resources will be used up in the future
2) finding replacements
3) conflict between making petrochemicals and fuels


What does fractional distillation do?

Separates crude oil into useful products called fractions


Why does fractional distillation work?

Differences in boiling points


What are the fractions obtained by crude oil?

-heating oil
-Fuel oil


Describe how fractional distillation separates crude oil into fractions

1)crude oil is heated
2)a fractioning column with a temperature gradient
3)fractions containing mixtures of hydrocarbons are obtained
4)fractions contain many substances with similar boiling points
5)fractions with low boiling points exit from the top of the fractionating column
6) fractions with high boiling pointa exit at the bottom of the fractionating column


Explain in terms molecular size, intermolecular size and boiling points how crude oil can be separated by fractional distillation

-during boiling intermolecular forces between molecules break but covalent bonds within the molecule do not
-the bigger intermolecular size of a hydrocarbon, the stronger intermolecular force
-the stronger intermolecular force, the higher boiling point


What are some environmental problems involved in the exploitation of crude oil?

1) oil slicks:
-result of accidents
-use of detergents to clean up oil slicks and consequent damage to wildlife

2)damage to wildlife and beaches:
-damage to birds
-feathers causing death


What are the political problems with the exploitation of crude oil?

-UK dependent on oil and gas from politically unstable countries
-future supply issues


What does cracking need?

Catalyst and high temperature


Describe the cracking process

1)converts large alkane molecules into smaller alkane and alkene molecule
2)makes useful alkene molecules that can be used ti make polymers


How does cracking help an oil refinery to match its supply and demand?

It turns less in demand fractions like bitumen into highly demanded products like petrol


Name 3 fossil fuels

Crude oil, gas and coal