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What group in the Periodic Table is carbon in?

Group 4
IUPAC Group 14


How many electrons does carbon have on its outer shell?



How many covalent bonds can carbon form?



Is carbon able to use its covalent bonds to combine to itself and other elements?



What are Allotropes?

A different form of an element in the same state but in a different arrangement


Give 2 examples of an allotrope of carbon.



Despite being both allotropes of carbon, explain why diamond and graphite are both very different?

Their structure and binding changes what the elements look like and feel like


How is diamond bonded?

Diamond exists as a large covalent structure, as each carbon atom is covalently bonded to 4 others. Covalent bonds are strong, and diamond has very many of them. Diamond has no depolarised electrons, so it cannot generate electricity. All of the outer shells of its atoms have electrons, which means they can covalently bond.


What can you determine about diamond after learning of its bonding?

You can tell diamond has got a high hardness, and a high boiling point, because it has a lot of covalent bonds which are very storing and hard.


Describe the bonding of graphite.

Graphite exists as a large covalent structure, where each electron only covalently bonds to 3 other carbon atoms. The stray electron does not take part in the bonding, so it becomes delocalised, meaning graphite can allow electricity to flow even though it is not metal. The atoms in each layer form interlocking hexagons. The forces between each layer is weak, so layers can slide over each other easily, but there are many strong covalent bonds in the layers.


What can you tell of graphite’s structure from its bonding?

It has a high melting point as it has a lot of strong covalent bonds, but as the forces between the layers are weak, the structure of graphite is slippery.


What is graphene?

Graphene is a carbon allotrope that resembles a single layer of graphite


Describe the structure of graphene.

It is almost transparent, extremely strong and can conduct electricity


What are fullerenes?

A large family of carbon allotropes in which the are shaped like tubes or balls


What is a nanotube?

A sheet of graphene rolled into a tube


What is a buckyball?

It resembles a sheet of graphene closed to make a hollow ball but the carbon atoms can be in pentagons as well as hexagons


What can buckyballs do?

Act as a lubricant with the molecules acting as small ball bearings
Maybe one day deliver medical drugs directly to cells


Describe a nanotube.

A sheet of graphene rolled into a tube
Strong and used to reinforce some sports equipment