Flashcards in CAL Feeding the sick patient Deck (18):
What is malnutrtion?
Any disorder that results in inadequate or imbalanced nutritional intake. This can be both too little or too much.
What are the main deleterios effects of malnutrition?
Decreased protein synthesis
Compromised immune function
Decreased wound healing
How does catabolism differ in a sick and healthy animal?
Healthy - fats
Unhealthy - muscle
Why is nutritional support needed in critically ill patients?
Metabolic changes due to disease lead to malnutrition.
What is an ideal BCS for a dog when using a 1-9 scale?
Describe what is visible/palpable on an ideal BC dog.
Ribs easily palpable/with minimal fat covering. Waist visible when viewed from above. Abdomen tucked up when viewed from the side.
What is the ideal BCS for a cat? Describe what an ideal BC cat would look/feel like.
5. Would look well proportioned. Waist visible behind the ribs. Ribs palpable (but not visible) with slight fat covering. Abdominal fat pad minimal.
Does malnutrition always equate to emaciation?
No. an obese animal with anorexia is also cause for concern.
What are the two broad categories of disease that would lead to improper food intake?
Structural problems (Can't eat)
Metabolic problems (Won't eat)
What is hypersalvation and lip licking a classic sign of?
Are appetite stimulants a good way of increasing food intake? What other methods would be used?
No - normally not effective enough
Often and enteral feeding tube is used and in rare cases parenteral nutrition may be necessary.
When are oesophageal feeding tubes commonly used?
When an animal is a neonate as concious adult animals do not normally tolerate this method of feeding very well.
How is the correct placement of a naso-oesophageal feeding tube confirmed and what is a limitation of this method?
Very small diameter so can only feed liquid diets (expensive)
Animals may also not tolerate this method.
What types of feeding tube are the best?
Oesophagostomy feeding tube
Percutaneous Endoscopic-Guided Gastrotomy tube
What needs to be considered when choosing which feeding tube to use?
-How long? (PEG and Oesophagostomy can be used long term)
-Ability and expertise
-Which part of GI tract needs to be bypassed
-Owners ability to continue therapy at home.
What are the complications that may arise from feeding tube usage?
Blockage of the tube
Vomiting (feeding too much)
Infection of the incision site
Leakage of contents
What are the complications associated with PN?