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Principles of Science > Cytology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cytology Deck (21):
1

What does cytology no provide information on compared to histopathology?

Tissue architecture

(tumor grading, IHC)

2

What can be sampled for cytology?

Most things that are reachable wih a needle/visible on ulrasound. Fluids can also be sampled.

3

How is a FNB performed?

Using a small guage needle incert this into the mass several times. Need to sample wall is a mass has a necrotic centre. Expel onto a slide using an air filled syringe.

4

What should one remember when removing an FNA needle?

Release negative pressure on the syringe

5

What are the goals of smear preparation?

Thin areas with cell spread.
Minimize cell damage
Minimize blood content

6

When is a 'touch impression'/'imprint' made?

Prior to contact with formalin.

7

What things are key to making a good imprint?

Use a freshly cut surface of tissue and DRY the sample first.

8

Outline the systematic approach to assessing a cytology sample.

1.Is the preparation adequeate and => diagnostic?

2.Is there inflammatory or neoplastic change

3.Inflammatory - septic/non septic
Neoplasic - type of cell

4. Benign or malignant

9

What things are indicative of sample quality?

Enough cells
Preserved cells
Spreading
Representative of lesion?
Are normal cells expected?

10

How can inflammation and neoplasia be distinguished?

inflammatory cells or tissue cells?

If both then inflammation cold be primary --> dysplasia or neoplasia can be primary --> inflammation`

11

What things indicate septic inflammation?

Degenerate neutrophils
Bacteria must be INTRAcellular

12

What causes neurophil degeneration?

Toxins released by bacteria

13

What should one be careful of when looking for signs of sepsis?

Stains can produce arifacts that look like bacteria

14

What might cause increased macrophages?

Granulomaous inflammation (mycobacteria)

Fungal infections (also neutrophils)

FB reactions

15

What do round cells look like?

Individual cells hat are round to oval in shape and nuclei with well defined cell borders. Will often see a high cell yield.

16

What are the things that cause round cell tumours?

Lymphoma
Histiocytoma
Mast cell tumour
TVT
Melanoma

17

What do epithelial cells look like on cytology?

Clusters
Large cells
Cell-cell junctions
Good cell yield

18

What do mesenchymal cells look like cytologically?

Small-med size
Poor cell yield

19

What are the things that indicate malignancy and in what diseases do they occur?

pleomorphism

Monotony - in lymphoid tumours this is a sign of neoplasia

20

What are the cellular criteria of malignancy?

Anisocytosis
Macrocytosis
Anisokaryosis
Multinucleation
Macrokaryosis
High nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio
Increased/Abnormal mitotic figures
Coarse chromatin
Nuclear moulding
Macronucleoli
variation in nucleaolar size/shape

21

What are the common things to lok out for when storing/submitting samples?

Fumes from formalin
Refrigerating glass slides