What can haematology give an indication of?
Erythrocytes -Anaemia -erythrocytosis Leukocytes -Inflammatory conditions -Neoplastic conditions -chemotherapy Platelets -Bleeding disorders -DIC Plasma -look at colour
What colour would plasma be if heamolysis is present? And what colour should it be normally?
Pink. Normal is clear/straw coloured
What can be measured from the plasma?
If an animal is scared, what may happen to its erythrocyte count and why?
It will increase as the spleen contracts.
What measurements are given out on a complete blood profile for erythrocytes?
RBC concentration HGB (total heamoglobin) HCT (haematocrit) and spun PCV - these are the same thing MCV (mean cell volume) MCH (mean cell heamoglobin) MCHC (mean cell haemoglobin concentration) RDW (red cell distribution width)
What does RDW give a measure of?
Red cell distribution width - this gives a measure of the variability in size of RBCs in a sample.
How can MCV and MCHC be described?
MCV - normocytic, macrocytic, microcytic MCHC - normochromic, hypochromic (hyperchromic)
What is a likely reason for having microcytic erythrocytes?
Fe defficiency as cells divide so they can reach the same iron concentration.
What are macrocytic erythrocytes likely to be and what do they indicate in terms of aneamia?
They are probably reticulocytes (polychromatophils). This indicates regenerative aneamia.
What do hypochromic cells indicate?
What are the reasons for a regenerative aneamia?
Heamorrhage or hemolysis.
What are the most common causes of non-regenerative anaemia?
Inflammatory chronic disease process Renal failure decreased marrow production
How long does one have to wait before being able to truly classify anaemia as non-regenerative?
What is the difference between a polychromatophil and a reticulocyte?
Polychromatophil is what is seen on a normal blood stain Reticulocytes precipitate on staining with methylene blue, although they are the same type of cell.
What does the following picture show?
Describe the difference between aggregate and punctate reticulocytes.
Both in cats. Aggregate are the less mature version. You must only count one type.
What is a corrected reticulocyte %? And what are the normal values for a dog and cat?
The retic % x patient PCV.
a) dog 1%
b) cat 0.4%
What would regenerative anaemia look like on a blood smear?
- Polychromic cells
- Anisocytosis (variable blood cells)
- Macrocytosis (large cells)
- Nucleated RBCs (indicates immaturity)
- Howell-Jolly bodies (nuclear remnants in the RBC that are basophilic)
- Codocytosis (bulls-eye cells)
- Basophilic stipling (small dots on periphery of cells)
What things might one see evidence of with a non-regenerative aneamia?
- Spherocytes (sphere shaped cells)
- Ghost cells
- Shear products (damaged in circulation)
- Oxidative damage evidence (e.g. Heinz bodies - small round inclusions in the RBC)
What leukocytes are often counted as part of a CBC?
What things can be distinguishing in terms of morphology of neutrophils?
Is there a left shift?
Is there toxicity damage
What is important to remember when blood sampling neutrophils/how can this influence a Dx?
Most of the time WBCs are not present in the circulation, and many will be marginated even when in the circulation. The interplay between WBCs going in and those going out can give an indication of the disease.
How can a regenerative left shift be distinguished from a degenerative?
Regenerative with have neutrophilia with bands>segmented
Degenerative will have neutropenia with segmented>bands
What are the types of leukemia?
And what is the difference between them in a blood smear?
Acute vs. chronic
Lymphoid vs. myeloid
Acute = odd looking cells
Chronic = normal looking cells but lots of them
What is a problem when counting platelets?
They have a tendancy to clump