Immunological and Molecular Diagnositics Flashcards Preview

Principles of Science > Immunological and Molecular Diagnositics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunological and Molecular Diagnositics Deck (16):
1

What are the uses of serology?

To see if an animal has been exposed to a pahogen
To test whether there has been a response to vaccination
To test for immune-mediated disease

2

What can immunoassays be used for?

Looking doe a specific pathogen in a sample
Measuring biomarkers
Immunophenotyping

3

When taking a blood sample, how does the collection method differ when wanting:

a) Serum
b) Cells

a) Clotted sample
b) Anticoagulant (citrate/heparin)

4

What is the serological marker for innate immunity?

Acute phase proteins

5

What do measurements of the following show:

a)Total IG
b)Antigen specific IG?

a) Detecting failure of passive transfer
Ig deficiency syndromes
Gammopahies

b) Exosure o specific pathogen
Response to vaccination
Dx of antibody mediated hypersensitivity

6

In a recent infection what should one test for if using an ELISA?

Antigen - as an adaptice immune response may not have yet developed.

7

If antibodies are seen in response to infection, how can the progress of infection be determined?

Look at the type of Ig produced and take samples 2-3 weeks apart.

8

Which type of ELISA is used to detect:
a) Antigen
b) Anibody

a) Sandwich
b) Indirect

9

Describe a VN assay and why is this useful?

Infect cells without serum to see positive result and determine whether virus has a cytopathic effect - otherwise will need to visualise with IFA. Then add serial dilutions of serum and see the titre that prevents cells being infected.

This is advantagous c.f. ELISA/IFA as it indicates that antibodies are biologically active.

10

How can T cell responses be evaluated in vivo and in vitro?

In vivo - Intradermal skin test (leave >72hrs for delayed type hypersensitivities)

In vitro - measure cytokine release following Ag stimulation. (may also be able to look at surface receptors and proliferation??)

11

What other things can be tested to test immune funcion?

1. Immunodeficiency - Neurophil function - if defective adaptive responses

2. Allergy e.g. Allercept testing

3. Autoimmune disease - specific assays for autoantibodies are available

12

How can a pathogen be detected in a sample?

Sandwich ELISA
IFA
IHC

13

What methods are there for measuring biomarkers (e.g. hormones) in a sample?

Chemiluminescence
RIA

14

What is immunophenotyping?

Using antibodies against cell surface markers to determine cell types within a sample.

15

When testing an animal for genetic disease what should be considered?

What type of mutation (insertion/deletion/substitution)
Is disease simple or complex genetic disorder
Is it autosomal or sex linked
Dominant or recessive
Complete or incomplete penetrance (i.e. does presence of the mutation always = disease?

16

What is DNA genotyping useful for?

Establishing parentage
Diagnosis of disease
Screening for carrier animals
Establishing risk of disease in later life