Immunological and Molecular Diagnositics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Immunological and Molecular Diagnositics Deck (16):

What are the uses of serology?

To see if an animal has been exposed to a pahogen
To test whether there has been a response to vaccination
To test for immune-mediated disease


What can immunoassays be used for?

Looking doe a specific pathogen in a sample
Measuring biomarkers


When taking a blood sample, how does the collection method differ when wanting:

a) Serum
b) Cells

a) Clotted sample
b) Anticoagulant (citrate/heparin)


What is the serological marker for innate immunity?

Acute phase proteins


What do measurements of the following show:

a)Total IG
b)Antigen specific IG?

a) Detecting failure of passive transfer
Ig deficiency syndromes

b) Exosure o specific pathogen
Response to vaccination
Dx of antibody mediated hypersensitivity


In a recent infection what should one test for if using an ELISA?

Antigen - as an adaptice immune response may not have yet developed.


If antibodies are seen in response to infection, how can the progress of infection be determined?

Look at the type of Ig produced and take samples 2-3 weeks apart.


Which type of ELISA is used to detect:
a) Antigen
b) Anibody

a) Sandwich
b) Indirect


Describe a VN assay and why is this useful?

Infect cells without serum to see positive result and determine whether virus has a cytopathic effect - otherwise will need to visualise with IFA. Then add serial dilutions of serum and see the titre that prevents cells being infected.

This is advantagous c.f. ELISA/IFA as it indicates that antibodies are biologically active.


How can T cell responses be evaluated in vivo and in vitro?

In vivo - Intradermal skin test (leave >72hrs for delayed type hypersensitivities)

In vitro - measure cytokine release following Ag stimulation. (may also be able to look at surface receptors and proliferation??)


What other things can be tested to test immune funcion?

1. Immunodeficiency - Neurophil function - if defective adaptive responses

2. Allergy e.g. Allercept testing

3. Autoimmune disease - specific assays for autoantibodies are available


How can a pathogen be detected in a sample?

Sandwich ELISA


What methods are there for measuring biomarkers (e.g. hormones) in a sample?



What is immunophenotyping?

Using antibodies against cell surface markers to determine cell types within a sample.


When testing an animal for genetic disease what should be considered?

What type of mutation (insertion/deletion/substitution)
Is disease simple or complex genetic disorder
Is it autosomal or sex linked
Dominant or recessive
Complete or incomplete penetrance (i.e. does presence of the mutation always = disease?


What is DNA genotyping useful for?

Establishing parentage
Diagnosis of disease
Screening for carrier animals
Establishing risk of disease in later life